You know, I’ve come across many”religious” people of various religion.. That will argue, devate, live, and die for justification of their religion .. This is just 1 one of the common traits all extremely “religious” people seem to share, but also that, it seems , they don’t seem to stop and think about things on a nebulous perspective.. They fight about who created this universe yet they are blinded to who is destroying it. Regardless of the name, or book, the Creator.. The God.. Left for us and regardless of which is considered right, they are all here. On the same earth. Maybe they need to stop trying to humanize something that far surpasses any description, word, or book, could describe such a divine spiritual complex, one for which I can barely describe for there is no word that could properly fit the incomprehensible spirituality of the creator we constantly fight about. Earth will never reach peace and man has fallen into the doom of their greed… But what if they looked at what has already been given to them despite the evil that posses the wolrd. Oceans with creatures from a sci-fi flick… Mountain views that make it worth the brutal climb… Technology to look into microscopic universes never imagined , plants that provide what is keeping you alive and don’t forget the perfect homeostasis that doesn’t even make sense according to physics. Rainbows, pyramids, thunder, animals, flowers, bees, just to name barely .00001% of the incredible things on planet earth alone…. This should remind them to look at what they have already been given even when it seems like nothing, and to imagine what is waiting in the next life and to not always fear death. To not fear change. To not fear the unknown but to try and expirience every part of life in this lifetime while they can … And lastly, only fear death if you have given your soul to a system that takes away living happily. #mademethink #ageoftheaquarius #bethelight #lookaround #travel #culture #happinescreateshappiness #itsGoingTobeOk #photosynthesis #biology #science 🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸

3

Man Creates The First Ever Leaf That Turns Light and Water Into Oxygen

"If humanity hopes to realize its dreams of exploring the stars, we’re going to need to find ways to recreate life on Earth aboard a spaceship. Simply stockpiling enough vital supplies isn’t going to cut it, which is what led Julian Melchiorri, a student at the Royal College of Art, to create an artificial biological leaf that produces oxygen just like the ones on our home planet do."

YES. Let’s get off this planet, shall we? 

'Solar-powered' sea slugs can survive in the dark

They’ve been called ‘solar-powered slugs’ and ‘leaves that crawl’ — species of sacoglossan sea slug that assimilate the photosynthetic organelles in the algae they eat, causing their bodies to turn bright green. But it turns out that these slugs can survive months of starvation even when their photosynthetic capacity is massively reduced, casting doubt on the widely-accepted theory that they rely on photosynthesis to feed themselves when there’s nothing around to eat.

Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive Gregor Christa, Verena Zimorski,Christian Woehle,Aloysius G. M. Tielens,Heike Wägele,William F. Martin andSven B. Gould. Proc. R. Soc. B 7 January 2014  vol. 281  no. 1774  20132493 

The sea slug Elysia timida extracts the photosynthesizing organelles from single-cell algae it feeds on — but it is unclear whether it actually can use them as its personal solar panel. Sven Gould/Jan de Vries

The Algaculture Symbiosis Suit

Science fiction costume? Actually this could be our future for sustenance. Even a possible solution to world hunger. As strange and cumbersome as this contraption looks, it actually feeds you algae. It’s a symbiosis suit, designed by artists Michael Burton and Michiko Nitta, that grows food while wearers go about their daily business. A self-sustaining source of food.

A series of tubes, placed in front of the mouth, capture carbon dioxide and feed it to a constantly-growing population of suit-embedded algae. But algae needs sunlight to grow, so the wearer must sit by a window or go outside long enough to meet the algae’s needs.

The suit debuted last year outside the Victoria and Albert Museum. There, an opera singer wore the Algaculture Symbiosis Suit, sang to the crowd and generated enough new algae populations during her performance that audience members were treated to a post-show snack.

Gagging yet? Well most people actually eat algae on a regular basis without knowing it. Foods such as sushi, ice cream and mayonnaise are all derivatives of algae.

"Algaculture designs a new symbiotic relationship between humans and algae. It proposes a future where humans will be enhanced with algae living inside new bodily organs, allowing us to be semi-photosynthetic [and]…entering into a mutually beneficial relationship with the algae," the designers state.

If you want to see the Algaculture Symbiosis Suit in action, check out the video of the opera singer wearing the suit. The future is looking stranger and stranger.

source

Seasons Come and Seasons Glow

We’ve all eaten more than our fill, especially during this time of year. Did you know plants can get full, too?

The elaborate process of converting sunlight into usable energy (the so-called “light reactions” or “magic”) is essentially a big chain where one protein hands off electrons to the next in order to break apart water and build up a bunch of hydrogen ions that can be used to power the ATP factory:

It’s a bit like someone carrying buckets of water upriver in order to power the water wheel at the old mill. The thing is, any a given chloroplast can only hold and process so much sun energy at one time. In order to prevent damage to the leaf factory, the plant gets rid of the excess, either via heat or by giving off light.

That’s right, plants can glow! Or more accurately, chlorophyll can fluoresce. And they do it just about any time they are undergoing photosynthesis, it’s just that we can’t see it. But NASA can. Their Earth-observing satellites can detect this excess plant energy and use it to check how active and healthy our planet’s vegetation is.

The above visualization from NASA shows four years worth of plant fluorescence, averaged into one complete seasonal cycle. Winter turns to spring, spring to summer, and autumn leaves fall, played out in waves of glowing pink.

Previously: The world viewed through Kodak’s Aerochrome film … pink plants everywhere!

Carbon fixation is when carbon dioxide is converted to organic compounds. Plants do a lot of the carbon fixation on Earth, by taking carbon dioxide from the air. As anyone who’s cared for plants knows, they also need some water and some light. You might also know that they give off oxygen.

They do this by photosynthesis. Look up above and you’ll see they’re basically taking the C out of CO2 and then giving off O2. This carbon (the C) gets converted to carbohydrates, which are basically sugars.

All life on Earth depends on reactions like this for two reasons:

  1. The oxygen in the atmosphere, which we and other animals breathe, is made this way.
  2. All carbon fixation happens this way (or some similar way).

Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle

You probably know that plants take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen, but as we saw in the last article, that isn’t a neat exchange, turning O2 into CO2. Rather, oxygen is created as a byproduct of splitting water, and CO2 is consumed by being turned into sugar. This happens in the Calvin Cycle.

In the Calvin Cycle, carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP are put in, and a sugar called G3P comes out. There are three steps to create this sugar: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration. Note that none of these steps needs direct light!

The first step is carbon fixation. CO2 is taken in from the atmosphere around the plant, added to a 5-carbon sugar called RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate), and thus turned into 3-phosphoglycerate, an organic molecule. This process is catalysed by an enzyme called Rubisco—basically, it recognises CO2 and pairs it with the “CO2 acceptor”, RuBP. For every “turn” of the Calvin Cycle, three CO2 molecules are fixed into two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules.

In the second step, reduction, the cycle takes in 6 NADPH and 6 ATP (from the light reactions) to convert these molecules into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). The “reducing power” of NADPH is used to add electrons to the molecules, and the ATP gives them phosphate groups.

Then in the last stage, regeneration, 3 more ATP molecules are used to turn five molecules of G3P back into RuBP, the CO2 acceptor, so it can be used again at the start of the cycle. What’s leftover—a single G3P—is the output of the cycle. It’s the overall goal of photosynthesis: a sugar molecule that can then be used in cellular respiration to create energy for living cells to use.

image

So, a roundup of the cycle:

  • We put in 9 ATP, 6 NADPH, and 3 CO2.
  • We get out 9 ADP, 6 NADP+, and 1 G3P (plus 3 RuBP molecules).
  • The ADP and NADP+ are then recycled back to the light reactions, and photosynthesis begins over again.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: 3D video or Video from Crashcourse

7

Seeing Photosynthesis from Space

NASA scientists have established a new way to use satellites to measure what’s occurring inside plants at a cellular level.

Plants grow and thrive through photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight into energy. During photosynthesis, plants emit what is called fluorescence – light invisible to the naked eye but detectable by satellites orbiting hundreds of miles above Earth. NASA scientists have now established a method to turn this satellite data into global maps of the subtle phenomenon in more detail than ever before.


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