Renal connections to the urinary system and the vessels of the hepatic parenchyma

[Remember: RenalKidney and Hepatic Liver]

The liver, like most organs, has a stroma, which is the connective tissue that provides structure, and a parenchyma, which is the functional part of the organ.

The parenchyma of the liver is highly vascularized, and hepatocytes form lobules (the filtering units) in hexagonal groups, centered around a central vein. These veins, arteries, and bile ducts (leading to and from the gall bladder -  the balloon seen in the bottom center of the image) facilitate the processing of foods and toxins from the intestines.

In general, the liver is extremely good at its job - paired with the kidneys’ ability to filter the general blood supply, we’ve evolved to process almost all environmental and ingested toxins that are presented to us in our day-to-day lives. After all, we could never have eaten raw meat and survived on dirty roots for most of our evolutionary history without that.

While some conditions, such as cirrhosis and renal failure inhibit our ability to process environmental toxins, adding “detoxification” scams to what your body has to process can actually harm, more than help. There are already established and effective medical procedures and diets for those with genuine organ troubles.

Anatome quartum renovata. Thomae Bartholini, 1684.

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Renal Failure

Renal failure (with or without proteinuria) develops through a variety of different mechanisms including the following:
Hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia leads to increased deposition of calcium phosphate in normal tissue (called metastatic calcification), resulting in calcification of renal tubules and collecting ducts.
Production of Bence Jones (BJ) proteins. The excretion of BJ proteins is directly toxic to the kidneys, damaging the renal epithelium and producing an intratubular giant cell reaction (further damaging the kidneys). Tubular casts of BJ proteins and giant cells are seen.
Primary amyloidosis. The increased levels of circulating light-chain proteins may result in their deposition in the kidney and subsequent conversion to amyloid.
Infiltration of malignant plasma cells in kidneys (rare). Infiltration of renal parenchyma by myeloma cells disrupts normal renal cell function, similarly to how they disrupt normal hematopoietic cell function in the bone marrow.

Excerpt from the book ‘Crush Step 1’