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Splanchnology - The study or discourse of the viscera (guts) - Greek: Splanchn(o), “viscera”.

Stomach (organ) - From Latin stomachus, “throat, gullet, stomach” [also “pride, indignation”, since those emotions were believed to arise from the stomach]. Derived from Greek stomachos, “throat, stomach”, literally an extension of stoma, "mouth, opening"
Pertaining to the stomach - Gastr(o)-, Ventr(o)-

Abdomen - “Belly fat”, from Latin abdomen, meaning, well, what it does today. Ultimate origin of the word is unknown.
Pertaining to the abdomen - Laparo-, Abdomin(o)-, Ventr(o)-

Digestion - From Latin dis-, “apart”, gerere, “to carry”, “to assimilate food in the bowels
Pertaining to digestion - -pepsia

Lungs - From Old English lungen, from Proto-Germanic *lungw-, literally “the light organ”, legwh-, “not heavy, having little weight”. Probably from the fact that lungs float when put in water (and other organs do not).
Pertaining to the lungs - Pulmo-, Pneumo-

Liver - From Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *liep-, “to stick, adhere, fat”
Pertaining to the liver - Hepat(o)-, Hepatic, Jecor- (uncommon)

Pancreas - From Greek pankreas, "sweetbread", from pan-, “all”, and -kreas, “flesh”, presumably from the fleshy, uniform nature of the pancreas.
Pertaining to the pancreas - Pancrea-

Kidney - From Middle English kidenere, origin unknown. Possibly from cwið , “womb”, and ey, “egg”, for its shape.
Pertaining to the kidney - Nephro-, Ren(o)-

Intestines - From the Latin intestina, “inward, intestine”, from intus, “within, on the inside”. [Old English for the organ was hropp, “rope”]
Pertaining to the intestines - [Small intestine] Enter(o)-, Duoden-, Jejeun(o)- [Large intestine/Colon] Col(o)-, Sigmoid-

Spleen - From Greek splen, "the milt, spleen". From PIE *splegh-, “milt” [Note: “Milt” - fish sperm - got its name from the Proto-Germanic name for spleen, but the word once meant “guts” in general]
Pertaining to the spleen - Splen(o)-

Gall bladder - Gall from Old English galla, “gall, bile”, from PIE root *ghel- "yellowish green, gold". Bladder origin the same as urinary bladder. 
Pertaining to the gall bladder - Cholecysto-, [Bile] Chol(e)-

Bladder - From Old English bledre, “urinary bladder, cystic pimple”, from PIE root *bhle-, "to blow" [same root as "blast"!]
Pertaining to the bladder - Vesic(o)-, Cyst(o)-

Learn more about medical and biological etymology on Biomedical Ephemera!

[Images from Historical Anatomies on the Web]

[Etymologies from Online Etymology Dictionary, who you should love and give money to]

Insulin is produced by special cells called pancreatic islets (or islets of Langerhans), which exist as small, isolated clumps of cells within the pancreas. The islets of Langerhans also produce glucagon, another hormone which affects blood glucose levels. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted directly into your bloodstream, and work together to regulate the sugar (glucose) levels in your body. 

Glucagon is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. It is released when your blood sugar levels are low (for example, if you have been fasting or exercising) stimulating the release of glucose from your body stores. As a result, stored glycogen in the liver is broken down to glucose and enters the bloodstream.

Insulin, on the other hand, is produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets. It is released when you have just eaten a meal and the level of glucose in your bloodstream is high. Insulin works by stimulating the cells within your body to take up the glucose in your blood, either for immediate energy or for storing as glycogen in your liver and muscle cells.

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Skunk Bear’s “Father of the Week” designed a bionic pancreas.

Ed Damiano’s son David was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when he was 11 months old. So Ed started to develop a system he calls a “bionic pancreas” — It’s designed to help people better manage their blood sugar.

He’s racing to get it approved by the Food and Drug Administration before his son leaves for college in three years.

Read the full story, from NPR’s Rob Stein, here.

Images:

  • Ed tests tubing for his son’s insulin pump.
  • A pump that uses the hormone glucagon to help provide better blood sugar control.
  • David wears a transmitter on his abdomen that sends data on his glucose levels to a monitoring unit.
  • Ed Damiano and his son David, 15, play basketball at home in Acton, Mass.

Credit: Ellen Webber for NPR

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Pancreas (The Living Transplant Series)

The first pancreas transplantation was performed in 1966 by the team of Dr. Kelly, Dr. Lillehei, Dr. Merkel, Dr. Idezuki Y, & Dr. Goetz, three years after the first kidney transplantation. A pancreas along with kidney and duodenum was transplanted into a 28-year-old woman and her blood sugar levels decreased immediately after transplantation, but eventually she died three months later from pulmonary embolism.

In 1979 the first living-related partial pancreas transplantation was done. Today, pancreas transplantation is reserved for those with severe diabetes complications and still often done in conjunction with kidneys. A living transplant donor is able to donate a certain part of their pancreas, but unlike the liver will not regenerate. 

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