osteoclasts

3

Gary Carlson  
Medical and Biological Illustration
[website]

OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY
Osteoclasts remove excess bone by etching away at the bone surface. When they become overactive, osteoporosis may occur. [source]

ADIPOGENESIS
Adipocytes, or fat cells, greatly increase in size over time as lipid droplets accumulate within the cytoplasm.  [source]

SYNAPTIC JUNCTION
Schematic representation of neurotransmitters crossing between neurons showing the action of a drug for treating Alzheimer’s disease.[source]

Boney remodeling is a chronic process of replacement with minimal change in the gross shape of the bone structure. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts together are referred to as bone remodeling units. They work in concert together, coordinated via paracrine signaling by the osteoblasts. The constant remodeling allows for calcium homeostasis and the repair of microscopic daily stressors. The histology slide show demonstrates bone remodeling with osteoclasts resorbing one side of a bony trabecula and osteoblasts depositing new bone on the other side.

Three words of Piaget’s disease of bone:

  1. Excess activity of osteoclasts, destroying the bone. Shortly after the osteoblasts hurry to try to fix the bone, although haphazardly. The end result is a mozaic pattern of lamellar bone (the buzz word).
  2. Increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) level in combination with a NORMAL calcium and phosphate. By the way, hydroxyproline is also elevated (FYI).
  3. Osteosarcoma. Risk is increased in patients with Paget’s disease of bone.

Image: Uploaded for Wikimedia Commons by user Laughlin Dawes.

Osteoclasts (shown) resorb bone over a period of weeks, and are especially active during periods of rapid remodeling (eg, after menopause). Because osteoclasts work faster than osteoblasts, the rate of bone loss may outpace the rate of bone production. During these periods, the newly produced bone is at increased risk for fracture because it is less densely mineralized, collagen has not matured, and resorption sites are temporarily unfilled.

Trabecular and Cortical Bone

Previously unknown by me, there are apparently two types of bone; trabecular and cortical.

Trabecular bone is often found within the inside of bones. It is characterized by a spongy appearance and is full of holes. It is in here that the bone marrow resides. In addition to the above functions and possessing a relatively light mass, the trabecular bone also serves to function as a reservoir of calcium and releases said element readily when the body runs low.

Cortical bone is the outer layer of bone. It is highly dense and accounts for the majority of the skeleton’s mass.

It is this conbination of cortical and trabecular bone that keeps the skeleton light and maintains the motility that humans possess.

Fun fact: the human skeleton is synthesized by special cells known as osteoclasts. These cells are responsible for renewing and maintaining the skeleton. The human skeleton is replaced, cell by cell, every ten years or so.

[Discussion] The paleo stance on alcohol? Alcohol is oestrogenic for both men and women. via /r/Paleo

In Women it is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women.

Beer - oestrogenic properties in hops as well as the yeast in ALL alcoholic drinks are highly oestrogenic. Oestrogen is the reproductive hormone for yeast as well. Less oestrogenic properties in wine. The highly oestrogenic beer cause the adrenals to make cortisol as well, making for the big belly look.

Oestrogen; Causes breast stimulation, increases body fat, salt and fluid retention, depression and headaches, interferes with thyroid hormone, increases blood clotting, impairs blood sugar control, loss of zinc and retention of copper, reduces oxygen levels in all cells, slightly restrains osteoclast (bone loss) function, reduces vascular tone, increases risk of endometrial cancer, increases risk of breast cancer.



Submitted March 16, 2015 at 04:23AM by justaguy9
via reddit http://ift.tt/1BLolNV
[Discussion] The paleo stance on alcohol? Alcohol is oestrogenic for both men and women.

In Women it is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women.

Beer - oestrogenic properties in hops as well as the yeast in ALL alcoholic drinks are highly oestrogenic. Oestrogen is the reproductive hormone for yeast as well. Less oestrogenic properties in wine. The highly oestrogenic beer cause the adrenals to make cortisol as well, making for the big belly look.

Oestrogen; Causes breast stimulation, increases body fat, salt and fluid retention, depression and headaches, interferes with thyroid hormone, increases blood clotting, impairs blood sugar control, loss of zinc and retention of copper, reduces oxygen levels in all cells, slightly restrains osteoclast (bone loss) function, reduces vascular tone, increases risk of endometrial cancer, increases risk of breast cancer.

submitted by justaguy9 
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I just unfollowed accounts that sells #fakebracess really dissatisfying seeing how they proudly showed-off selling a wrong thing…i mean how can peoples being so mind-numbingly dumb buying those fake things, that’s the thing that i’ll never understand…they do know they used chemicals to bond it, not the safe one fyi, they also understood that there were reasons why it’s cheap, and yet they are willingly put that slow-soul-eater into their own mouth? I won’t ever understand that…academically, look at the placing of the brackets, i mean come on, do they know about the degree of tilting, the force or even the curve of spee?? Owh my, the osteoblast and osteoclast that they think didn’t significant in their fake bracess….well, to all peoples out there who are user or thinking of wearing this things, good luck with that…this are the things that i’ll never use on my own family and love ones… #fakewillneverbeoriginal #hatefakers #dentist #bracess #orthodontic #love #family #friends (at Pekan Dabong)

I’m learning the process of completely loving being human. Loving every inch of my body, down to every bone, every immature osteoblast and dependable osteoclast.

Every ounce of potential, kg of excess adipose. Every inactive gyri and convoluted sulci.

Because how can I not be thrilled to leave this imperfect threshold that barriers infinity.

So I might as well indulge in this whole- existing- thing and enjoy every impurity that makes me human.

It’s so easy to wrap myself in the His word and forget my purpose in place.

The more I learn from the Lord, the less I need from this life.

Yet, I need to focus: live the life He gave me. Strive to love every person, lesson and imperfection to fully establish my physiology of being.