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Gary Carlson  
Medical and Biological Illustration
[website]

OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY
Osteoclasts remove excess bone by etching away at the bone surface. When they become overactive, osteoporosis may occur. [source]

ADIPOGENESIS
Adipocytes, or fat cells, greatly increase in size over time as lipid droplets accumulate within the cytoplasm.  [source]

SYNAPTIC JUNCTION
Schematic representation of neurotransmitters crossing between neurons showing the action of a drug for treating Alzheimer’s disease.[source]

Boney remodeling is a chronic process of replacement with minimal change in the gross shape of the bone structure. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts together are referred to as bone remodeling units. They work in concert together, coordinated via paracrine signaling by the osteoblasts. The constant remodeling allows for calcium homeostasis and the repair of microscopic daily stressors. The histology slide show demonstrates bone remodeling with osteoclasts resorbing one side of a bony trabecula and osteoblasts depositing new bone on the other side.

Three words of Piaget’s disease of bone:

  1. Excess activity of osteoclasts, destroying the bone. Shortly after the osteoblasts hurry to try to fix the bone, although haphazardly. The end result is a mozaic pattern of lamellar bone (the buzz word).
  2. Increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) level in combination with a NORMAL calcium and phosphate. By the way, hydroxyproline is also elevated (FYI).
  3. Osteosarcoma. Risk is increased in patients with Paget’s disease of bone.

Image: Uploaded for Wikimedia Commons by user Laughlin Dawes.

Blocking one receptor on cells could halt rheumatoid arthritis.

Blocking one receptor on cells could halt rheumatoid arthritis. Thoughts health innovators? bit.ly/1qm2FmY

Researchers at the University of Illinois have shown for the first time how the activation of a receptor provokes the inflammation and bone degradation of rheumatoid arthritis, and that activation of this one receptor, found on cells in the fluid of arthritic joints, is all that is required.  Their findings point to a new therapeutic target to interrupt the vicious cycle of inflammation and bone…

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Osteoclasts might well have cost me my cell bio exam because signal transduction pathways are interesting, but they’re evil. So RANK/RANKL ? Not a pro.

That’s why they are the feature of the day. I still love you. And I like to draw you like little ghosts.

Above : This award-winning image, Osteoclasts – The key to proper bone health, was created by Melanie Hoefer, Ph.D., a postdoctoral scientist in the Robert Rickert laboratory. (SanfordBurnham.org)

Trabecular and Cortical Bone

Previously unknown by me, there are apparently two types of bone; trabecular and cortical.

Trabecular bone is often found within the inside of bones. It is characterized by a spongy appearance and is full of holes. It is in here that the bone marrow resides. In addition to the above functions and possessing a relatively light mass, the trabecular bone also serves to function as a reservoir of calcium and releases said element readily when the body runs low.

Cortical bone is the outer layer of bone. It is highly dense and accounts for the majority of the skeleton’s mass.

It is this conbination of cortical and trabecular bone that keeps the skeleton light and maintains the motility that humans possess.

Fun fact: the human skeleton is synthesized by special cells known as osteoclasts. These cells are responsible for renewing and maintaining the skeleton. The human skeleton is replaced, cell by cell, every ten years or so.

Osteoclasts (shown) resorb bone over a period of weeks, and are especially active during periods of rapid remodeling (eg, after menopause). Because osteoclasts work faster than osteoblasts, the rate of bone loss may outpace the rate of bone production. During these periods, the newly produced bone is at increased risk for fracture because it is less densely mineralized, collagen has not matured, and resorption sites are temporarily unfilled.

This is a gift from my father. He found these antler in a forest in Austria

"Each antler grows from an attachment point on the skull called a pedicle. While an antler is growing, it is covered with highly vascular skin called velvet, which supplies oxygen and nutrients to the growing bone. Antlers are considered one of the most exaggerated cases of male secondary sexual traits in the animal kingdom, and grow faster than any other mammal bone. Growth occurs at the tip, and is initially cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue. Once the antler has achieved its full size, the velvet is lost and the antler’s bone dies. This dead bone structure is the mature antler. In most cases, the bone at the base is destroyed by osteoclasts and the antlers fall off at some point. As a result of their fast growth rate, antlers are considered a handicap since there is an immense nutritional demand on deer to re-grow antlers annually, and thus can be honest signals of metabolic efficiency and food gathering capability."

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antler

autbucky replied to your post: autbucky replied to your post:autbucky…

oh yeah. like it’d be a combination of the medication ‘encouraging’ his body to go back to how it was before and surgery for things it doesnt affect

yes exactly! like the medication is probably not going to UN-GROW BONES (tho it might encourage the formation of osteoclasts to start reabsorbing those bones in particular? in fact might convince his body to treat the mutated areas as abnormal or foreign, which could make him pretty sick as well)

now i talked myself out of what i was going to say. anyways yes it would be trying to force his body to go back to its “baseline” from before his mutation manifested

Do Weight Bearing Exercises Lay New Bone?


Weight bearing exercise is the only sort of workout that triggers your bones to adapt. Weak bones are triggered by a permeable structure that can compromise the wellness of your skeletal system. Bones only change when promoted. Without workout, your bones can become vulnerable and you could develop osteoporosis. This is a condition that increases your danger of fracture. Exercise can help to decrease the severity of osteoporosis and avoid it by stimulating bone development.

Exercise and Bones

Weight bearing exercise is the only workout that stimulates bone growth. Your body adjusts to the stimulus you offer it and your bones are no exception. Bones alter regularly with constant accumulation and breakdown. Osteoclast cells absorb bone and osteoblast cells develop it up. Bones respond by ending up being harder when they’re made use of. Weight bearing exercise increases the action of osteoblasts.

Mechanism

Until about the age of 20, your bones are building up more than they break down. At this age, you may reach your peak bone mass. Then, bone buildup and breakdown remain in balance. You include bone density when your bones are stressed. In the very same regard, disuse of bones results in rarefaction, the breakdown of bone density. For that reason, weight-bearing workout challenges the bones and stimulate sclerosis. Bone growth is exercise specific. In other words, just the bone that’s challenged through weight-bearing exercise will adapt. In addition, bones just adjust to the overload concept, much like your muscles. Just when your bones are given a load pressing their limits will they adjust to change to better manage the workout. This makes weight-bearing workout a necessity.

Bone Marrow

A sedentary individual likewise loses bone mass when the bone marrow section of your bone, the inside cavity, starts to full of fat. According to a research released in the ‘Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’ in 2011, workout can assist avoid this. Rather of your stem cells inside of your bone marrow tooth cavity ending up being fat, workout promotes these cells to end up being the bone cells that produce blood cells. 2 groups of mice were evaluated, inactive animals and those that ran for an hour or less three times weekly. The active and working out mice had less fat inside their bone and even more blood, 2 elements that can enhance not just bone wellness, however total wellness.

Exercise for Osteoporosis

According to the American College of Sports Medication, a person with osteoporosis must exercise aerobically four days per week and resistance-train two days every week. If you’ve osteoporosis, take part in pain-free, weight-bearing aerobic workout such as strolling or jogging four days each week for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity. Do resistance training exercises that put a direct load on the long axis of you bones for 8 to 10 repeatings. This stimulus ought to likewise be moderate in intensity. Get medical clearance prior to participating in any workout program.

Prevention

Prevention is everything about promoting one of the most bone growth you can while you’re still working toward your peak bone mass. It ought to also focus around keeping a bone-building balance for as long as possible. The book ‘Exercise Physiology’ suggests participating in regular weight-bearing workouts throughout childhood and adolescence. In addition, consume sufficient calcium and vitamin D for your age, as these nutritional parts can likewise impact your bone mass.

Exercise and Bone Health

Exercise and Bone Health

Bone is living tissue that is constantly undergoing a process called remodeling. In remodeling, cells called osteoclasts are breaking down old bone, as cells called osteoblasts are replacing it with new tissue. Many factors can affect the remodeling process and leave you with bones that are less dense and more fragile.

Some factors that affect bone remodeling are:

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