“Van Gogh gave you an ear? Well I’ll give you my entire skin!”

The skin is the largest organ in the human - and yes, its secretory and absorptive properties mean that it’s an organ!

In the adult human, the surface area of our epidermis (the only exposed layer of the skin) is approximately 1.5-2.0 square meters (16.5-21.5 sq. ft.).

There are six primary functions of the skin (some argue seven, including aesthetics and signalling to other members of our tribe), and two secondary functions:

  1. Physical barrier protecting from pathogens and environmental damage.
  2. Sensory receptor: Nerve endings perceive touch, temperature, pressure, and vibration.
  3. Heat regulation: There are far more blood vessels in the skin than are needed to supply its living cells - when the body is overheated it pumps blood out to the skin to radiate heat away from the body.
  4. Evaporation control: A separate aspect of heat regulation is controlling the sweat output of the skin, allowing evaporative cooling. Because of the way the epidermis is structured, sweat can escape, but can’t be reabsorbed, and removes heat from the skin as it evaporates.
  5. Water resistance: Along with letting water out of the body, it also doesn’t let water into the body! The connective tissue between the epidermal layers creates a membrane with a low enough permeability to allow us to survive away from water.
  6. Storage and Synthesis: Skin is a significant storage site for both water and fats, and synthesizes vitamin D from cholesterol stored near the top layer of the dermis.
  7. (Secondary) Excretion: While water is the primary component of sweat, the skin also secretes urea. However, urine excretes more than 100x more urea, and the urea excretion is secondary to evaporative cooling.
  8. (Secondary) Absorption: The skin is quite good at absorbing fat-soluble molecules, but it did not evolve in order to do this. Rather, it evolved to repel water, which in turn made it very lipophilic. This trait is used in medicine, with patches and creams that are absorbed through the surface of the skin.

Skin is nothing short of a hard-working organ that deserves at least as much credit as your lungs. Blemishes and spots and “discolorations” are no detriment to its functionality - love the skin you’re in! It’s one of the most important reasons why you’re not constantly sick!

Anatomia del corpo humano. Juan Valverde de Amusco, 1560.


Renal connections to the urinary system and the vessels of the hepatic parenchyma

[Remember: RenalKidney and Hepatic Liver]

The liver, like most organs, has a stroma, which is the connective tissue that provides structure, and a parenchyma, which is the functional part of the organ.

The parenchyma of the liver is highly vascularized, and hepatocytes form lobules (the filtering units) in hexagonal groups, centered around a central vein. These veins, arteries, and bile ducts (leading to and from the gall bladder -  the balloon seen in the bottom center of the image) facilitate the processing of foods and toxins from the intestines.

In general, the liver is extremely good at its job - paired with the kidneys’ ability to filter the general blood supply, we’ve evolved to process almost all environmental and ingested toxins that are presented to us in our day-to-day lives. After all, we could never have eaten raw meat and survived on dirty roots for most of our evolutionary history without that.

While some conditions, such as cirrhosis and renal failure inhibit our ability to process environmental toxins, adding “detoxification” scams to what your body has to process can actually harm, more than help. There are already established and effective medical procedures and diets for those with genuine organ troubles.

Anatome quartum renovata. Thomae Bartholini, 1684.

Resting place of Süleyman the Magnificent’s organs reportedly found in Hungary

The location where the internal organs of 16th century Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent were buried has been discovered in southern Hungary, daily Hürriyet has reported.

The sultan died in 1566 during the siege of the Szigetvar Fortress.

An official of the fortress, Janos Lebedi, said excavations to find the organs have been ongoing for two years in 18 spots around Szigetvar, but now the search has been narrowed down to just one spot. The suspected resting place of the organs is a vineyard in the city’s highest spot, seven kilometers away from the Szigetvar Fortress.

Lebedi said an excavation had already been conducted in the 40-meter-long and 10-meter-wide vineyard in 1972. During this excavation, three Ottoman structures were found as well as Ottoman roof tiles, pottery and green ceramics. Read more.

anonymous asked:

Do you know why in kidney transplants the recipient doesn't have the non functioning kidney removed but rather has the donor organ added in? I know unless it is diseased it's just kept in but not sure why?

Less risk, in short. There are inherent risks involved in removing an organ, whether or not it’s going to be replaced. In many cases, the existing kidneys may not function well, but do have a minimal amount of processing power, and still have a full blood supply. As an additional kidney can be added into the urinary system with less fuss than full replacement, and less overall risk, even if the recipients kidneys are completely non-functional. If the recipient kidneys are going haywire, however, and are sending out all sorts of bad signals or harboring cancers or incurable disease, they’re removed.

Adrenal failure can also occur when adrenal glands are removed from their kidney hosts (as happens when recipient kidneys are removed - often the adrenal glands are not affected by kidney disease), and adding lifelong adrenal supplements to an already-large number of immunosuppressant drugs needed after transplantation is not exactly ideal.

“Piggybacking” or heterotopic transplantation is also occasionally used in heart transplants, particularly when it’s a pediatric patient who is not receiving donor lungs at the same time. It’s also been used in liver transplants in very select cases. However, both of those surgeries are non-standard, and require very experienced surgeons at specialized transplant centers.



le crâne - skull

le cerveau - brain

le visage - face

le front - forehead

l'œil (les yeux) - eye (eyes)

le sourcil - eyebrow 

la paupière - eyelid

les cheveux - hair (on head)

l'oreille (les oreilles) - ear (ears)

le nez - nose

la joue - cheek

la bouche - mouth

la lèvre (les lèvres) - lip (lips)

la langue - tongue

la dent (les dents) - tooth (teeth)

la mâchoire - jaw

la gorge - throat

le menton - chin

la nuque - nape of the neck

le cou - neck


la peau - skin

le muscle - muscle

le sang - blood

le ligament - ligament 

le tendon - tendon 

l'os (les os) - bone (bones)

l'articulation - joint

l'épaule (les épaules) - shoulder (shoulders)

le bras (les bras) - arm (arms)

le coude - elbow 

la main - hand

le poing - fist

l'avant-bras - forearm

le poignet - wrist

le doigt - finger

le pouce - thumb

l'ongle (les ongles) - nail (nails)

la hanche - hip

la jambe - leg

le tibia - shinbone, tibia

la rotule - kneecap, patella 

le genou - knee

la cheville - ankle

le pied - foot

le talon - heel

l'orteil - toe

le gros orteil - big toe

la poitrine - chest, breast

le sein - breast

le ventre - belly 

le dos - back

le nombril - belly button, navel

la colonne vertébrale - spine, spinal column

les fesses - bottom

le sexe - genitals 

le pénis - penis 

le testicule - testicle 

le vagin - vagina


le cœur - heart

le poumon - lung

l'estomac - stomach 

l'intestin - bowel

l'intestin grêle - small intestine 

le gros intestin - large intestine

le côlon - colon 

le foie - liver

le rein - kidney

la vessie - bladder

l'utérus - uterus 

l'ovaire - ovary

l'appendice - appendix 

le pancréas - pancreas

la vésicule biliaire - gall bladder

l'œsophage - oesophagus 

la rate - spleen

la trachée - trachea 

le diaphragme - diaphragm 

le rectum - rectum

l'anus - anus