Okay just fyi i’m in no way an expert on this, it’s just something i like to read about/am interested in lmao.
Basically, colour typing/analysis - specifically the four season, 12 type analysis - is a way to find what colour palette works best for your specific colouring. It’s determined by the undertone of your skin, hair and eyes and how light/deep your overall colouring is.
So based on these criteria, you’re typed into one of the four seasons:
- Winter: bluish or pinkish undertones to your skin (a good way to determine if you have cool or warm undertones is to look at your veins), dark hair, deep, intense eye colour, high contrast between your hair color, eye color and skin tone.
- Autumn - golden undertones in your hair and skin (such as brown hair with gold highlights), earthy toned eye color, low contrast colouring (so your hair/skin don’t have a dramatic difference, unlike pale skin and dark hair combinations), and an overall deep and warm look
- Spring - low level of contrast between hair, skin and eye color. Clear, warm and golden undertone to your overall coloring. Bright, clear eye colour, hair ranges from blonde to deep brown, with golden undertones.
- Summer - an overall cool and ashy coloring no matter if your hair is blonde or brown, and no matter if your skin is light or dark. Eyes have a soft, cool tone quality to them, such as slate or blue, skin is dominantly cool with pink or blue undertones, hair color is cool/ashy, with little to no red or golden highlights.
So those are the four basic seasons. From there you get more specific with a colour type:
- Light:(either light summer or light spring): hair colour is light (blond or light brown), skin is light for your ethnicity and eyes are a light blue, green or grey.
- Deep: (either a deep autumn or a deep winter): dark brown or black hair and deep brown, green or hazel eyes.
- Warm:(either a warm spring or a warm autumn): overall colouring has a distinctive warm undertone to it. Hair is either golden blond to brown, or strawberry blond to deep auburn. Eyes are green, topaz, hazel or light to medium brown.
- Cool: (either a cool summer or a cool winter): Regardless of whether you have light or dark skin/hair, overall colouring has an underlying cool quality to it.
- Clear: (either a clear winter or a clear spring): Overall colouring is high in contrast and saturation. Hair is either a medium brown to black or a vivid, bright blond, eyes are blue, bright green, topaz, or amber.
- Soft: (either a soft summer or a soft autumn): Little contrast between skin, hair and eyes and overall colouring is relatively close to neutral. Hair is neither very light nor very dark. Eyes are green, grey-blue, hazel or brown.
Some people aren’t one colour type exactly, or can be somewhere in the middle of two colour types (eg. be in between a clear spring and a clear winter). Also, changing your hair colour can change your colour type.
Examples… well, Claire from Outlander is a clear winter for sure. I would say Sansa is a warm spring, moving into a warm autumn when she has darker hair. Abbie Mills from Sleepy Hollow is a deep autumn, Lucy Liu is a deep winter, etc. Some good resources for colour typing (including applicable colour palettes!!) are here and here.