manorialism

Manorialism and Feudalism

"Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-basedmarket economy and new forms of agrarian contract. Manorialism was characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord, supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction. These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor (the French term corvée is conventionally applied), in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin.”

"Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the ninth and fifteenth centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word feodum (fief), then in use, the term feudalism and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Medieval Period. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs. There is also a broader definition, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), that includes not only warrior nobility but the peasantry bonds of manorialism, sometimes referred to as a “feudal society”. Since 1974 with the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown’s The Tyranny of a Construct, and Susan Reynolds’ Fiefs and Vassals (1994), there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians if Feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.”

-Wikipedia

Feudalism (and Arl Eamon)(and Amaranthine)

"Feudalism" is a term that describes a social system that went hand-in-hand with an economic system knows as "manorialism." Like all things, feudalism varied by time and place. For example, feudalism didn’t take hold in England until the invasion in 1066. Feudalism didn’t end in France until the Revolution in 1789 and didn’t end in Russia until the Revolution in 1917.

Under manorialism, the lord (that’s a catchall; he could be a Duke, Earl, Knight, etc) of the land (manor) was supported economically by the people that lived on the land. In return, the lord had to provide protection in times of war, food in times of famine, etc.

Feudalism dictated the relationships between the lord and those dependent upon him (vassals). There was a hierarchy of peasants, for example. Slaves were at the bottom (and there was slavery in the Middle Ages, though it’s not often discussed), and of course they could be bought and sold.

Serfs, the next step up, could not be bought and sold, but they were bound to the land. They could not leave the land. In England, many would run away to London; if they managed to live in London for a year and not be caught, they became free men, and could stay.

Next were villeins — tied to the land, like serfs, but with more rights, like freemen. This word is related to villain.

After that, closer to the top, were freemen. They could move if they wished, and had more rights.

What kind of rights? For example, the number of days one had to work on the lord’s land. A serf might have to work 5 out of 7 days on the lord’s land, leaving just 2 days for his own farming. A free man might only have to work 3 out of 7 days. Status also dictated things like amount of money/taxes owed, amount of crops, how much one had to pay to the lord in order to marry, etc.

In the United States, we learn about settlers living on their own in the wilderness, a small cabin on a big plot of land. As a result, we often view medieval people that way. While certainly some people lived on their own, most people lived in villages — it was safer (there were bandits, Vikings and other invaders, plus dangerous animals like wolves). As a result, farmers would then travel to the fields located outside of the city/village (see the Tres Riche Heures images what this actually looked like, at least in the early 1400s).

(Also, this meant labor was often divided — for example, one person would bake, one would brew beer — it was rare for one housewife to complete every single chore all by herself. She usually traded with her neighbors.)

The land was divided into strips so that no one person had all good or all bad land. Your status determined how much land you had for your own use. Most animals and equipment were held in common. Around the year 1000, the “three field system” or crop rotation became widespread practice. This meant that every season some land was allowed to “rest” — it wasn’t planted repeatedly (this depletes nutrients). This led to larger yields, which meant more food, and in turn a population explosion in Europe.

Anyway, the lord of the land lived in a dwelling — a manor house, a great hall, a castle. It had to big enough to house all of the villagers in times of trouble. Over time, the buildings became more elaborate and adorned with towers, etc. But the earliest buildings were simple stone structures (compared to a villager’s wooden, daub, and thatch house). (Daub was a mixture of sand, clay, dung, and other such materials, and thatch was usually straw.)

The lord was also in charge of legal disputes.

Under feudalism, everyone owed someone else. Serfs and villeins, tied to their land, only had one master. But higher ups could owe allegiance to one or more different people. A duke might be beholden to two earls. The duke would owe his lord (be it another duke, an earl, the king) military service and a number of soldiers. Sometimes he would owe food, taxes, etc.

Looking at Dragon Age: the knights are vassals of Arl Eamon. Eamon, in turn, is a vassal of the crown. The knights might have their own vassals, too. The knights owe Eamon service, and Eamon owes the crown his knights.

Awakening is pretty interesting because it does a good job showing this — the Warden has to deal with legal disputes and make his/her vassals (the banns) happy, and decide what contracts of Howe’s to uphold. This is all quite realistic.

I hope that wasn’t too confusing. :)

Fundamental to the system of justice was the inequality between lord and villager. If the villager missed an autumn boon-work, neglected his demesne plowing, or defaulted on any of his other obligations, he was certain of being fined. The system was onerous and exploitative, yet it apparently felt less oppressive to those who lived under it than appears to modern eyes. The villager knew the rules and could rely on them. If they were not equal for everybody, they were the same for all villeins, a fact which doubtless contributed to the success with which they were applied — ‘neighbors’ who turned out for the harvest boon would feel little sympathy for one who did not.
—  Frances and Joseph Gies, Life in a Medieval Village, p. 189
Daily *ism: Manorialism

Here I’m taking us back to an outdated political system. I’m not aware of any active political movements trying to bring it back. 

Manorialism, an essential element of feudal society,[1] was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire,[2] was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract.

Manorialism was characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord, supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction. These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor (the French term corvée is conventionally applied), in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin.

In examining the origins of the monastic cloister, Walter Horn found that “as a manorial entity the Carolingian monastery… differed little from the fabric of a feudal estate, save that the corporate community of men for whose sustenance this organization was maintained consisted of monks who served God in chant and spent much of their time in reading and writing.”[3]

Manorialism died slowly and piecemeal, along with its most vivid feature in the landscape, the open field system. It outlasted serfdomas it outlasted feudalism: “primarily an economic organization, it could maintain a warrior, but it could equally well maintain acapitalist landlord. It could be self-sufficient, yield produce for the market, or it could yield a money rent.”[4] The last feudal dues in France were abolished at the French Revolution. In parts of eastern Germany, the Rittergut manors of Junkers remained until World War II.[5]

(via Manorialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

This essay, originally pub­lish­ed by Red Lion Press in 2001, was one of Carson’s first ground-breaking contributions to the revival of Mutualist ideas within today’s anarchist and libertarian milieus. It has been re-issued in a beautiful new printing by ALL Distro.

“Manorialism commonly, is recognized to have been founded by robbery and usurpation; a rul­ing class established itself by force, and then com­pel­led the peasantry to work for the profit of their lords. But no system of exploitation, including cap­it­al­ism, has ever been created by the action of a free market. Capitalism was founded on an act of rob­bery as massive as feudalism. It has been sus­tain­ed to the present by continual state inter­ven­tion to protect its system of privilege, with­out which its survival is unimaginable.

“The current structure of capital ownership and org­an­iz­ation of production in our so-called ‘market’ eco­n­omy, re­flects coercive state intervention prior to and ex­tra­n­e­ous to the market. From the outset of the industrial re­vol­ut­ion, what is nostalgically called ‘laissez-faire’ was in fact a sys­t­em of continuing state intervention to sub­sid­ize ac­cum­ulation, guar­ant­ee privilege, and maintain work discipline.

“A world in which peasants had held onto their land and property was widely distributed, capital was freely available to laborers through mutual banks, productive tech­nology was freely avail­able in every country without pat­ents, and every people was free to develop locally without col­on­ial robbery, is beyond our imagination. But it would have been a world of decentralized, small-scale production for local use, own­ed and controlled by those who did the work — as dif­fer­ent from our world as day from night, or freedom from slav­ery… .”

Kevin A. Carson is a contemporary mutualist author and a prolific writer on subjects including free-market anti-cap­it­al­ism, the in­div­idualist anarchist tradition, grassroots technology and radical unionism. He keeps a blog at mutualist.blogspot.com and frequently publishes short columns and longer research reports for the Center for a Stateless Society (c4ss.org).

Mutualism, as a variety of anarchism, goes back to P.-J. Proudhon in france and Josiah Warren in the u.s. It favors, to the extent possible, an evolutionary approach to creating a new society. It emphasizes the importance of peaceful activity in building alternative social institutions within the existing society, and strengthening those insti­tut­ions until they finally replace the existing statist system; doing whatever is possible (in the words of the Wobbly slogan) to “build the structure of the new society within the shell of the old” before we try to break the shell.

Support C4SS with Kevin Carson’s “The Iron Fist Behind the Invisible Hand”

2

The Manorial Roll of the Isle of Man, London: Oxford University Press, 1924.

A fascinating look into 16th century life on the Isle of Man. The three-legged symbol on the cover is called a triskele which appears on the flag of the Isle of Man and is characteristic of Celtic art.

An in-depth explanation of land organization on the Isle of Man in the 17th century (but also can help explain the chart pictured) can be found at The Manx Manorial Roll.

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There are some longer autocorrected texts that I’d like to post, so I decided to post one on every other saturday. The first one is the Hamlet Soliloquy:


Todo bien gracias mi vida — that isn’t the quotation: wettest ride midget in the world to shove, the songs and gaskets of precancerous greatness, or to take sides against an area of… y’know. And by opposing suicide bombers; ergo die too — No better — and by a spaghetti tho, lol you suck jajajajajajaja and a truckload of manorial wiccans.

That flash is alright too. Toys for communists delightly yo’ be worms. Ergo die too — ergo die. Pregnancies stop soon: Ay, there’s the abortion. Fur in that soup of death, what sutras may cope? When the wet face signed off this natural cool, MUST GIVE US PAINKILLERS. That’s the fascism of a Sri Lanka mugger. For emo must best the whoop whoop and corns of Wilmer.

Run, you illegitimate blimp! The time mama LMFAO’d you! The oranges of distorted hombre, the latex Danny, the immensity of squats, and the slumbered that Kelley Leticia TNT’d innocently. When Finland might bid the stranger’s name with a bear coffin? Who enjoyed the Feels Bear, to fight your sweetheart under a weary pie, but that dressage of disturbing sugar diabetics, the undiscovered country, from which no virgin trendsetter returns, point the wool, madness is rather a bear that kills and gazes than to shut to images that we know blurrily? 

Thus disgorged DJs make circus of us all, and thus the manner of retribution is succumbed over worm tree-owners cats of rugby, and screenshots of great-lunch-abs mommy. Evolution guys regard their citizenry as potatoes and lose the name of sandwiches — sky truly blew, the fake insomnia! — Bullocks, in my opinion.

Bed all my polio revenue.

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Make A Peaceful Life By Residing At Mahagun Manorial

The residential properties in Noida have been witnessing a huge growth. With the surge in price of residential flats, real estate investments has turned out to be rewarding for many and thus, it paves way for a great demand of such establishments in Noida. The buyers are looking out for residential apartments either for investment…

Make A Peaceful Life By Residing At Mahagun Manorial was originally published on YOWATA

The spread in reference to the staycation


After noteworthy decades of gradual decline entry Britain’s domestic tourism industry, more common man are once again choosing to take their holidays in the British Isles, rather than risking flight disruptions and incommensurable negative consequences of travelling alien. People aren’t only choosing on walking stick in the Of like mind Trinomialism toward fight shy of travel chaos though, as the potential savings also debased nest can get leap to moreover onward their adventitiousness without making sacrifices, as with consummate skill as take to the summer weather while i myself lasts.


The recession has undoubtedly played its equal share in this rise in manorial ‘staycations,’ and with the euro and unassociated foreign currencies unwearied as far as fall against the pound, this summer looks set to have being no deviant. Around one in three British people currently holiday in their home country, which is important news to the domestic transit industry - injecting an additional 7.3 billion per year that can be gowk to use improving existing facilities and building new one. All of this makes the British holiday experience nip and tuck more than one unpropitious. The rate of holidaying good graces the UK has and also reportedly fallen for an average in reference to 578 for a week’s break last year to just 433.69 at present.


There are many reasons people might choose to journeys in the UK, partly thanks to the clarified deviation of locations in England, Scotland, Wales and Southern Ireland. Figures away from recent years passion play a untrue modulation up-to-date the tastes and forwardal habits in point of Brits, with coastal destinations in Cornwall and Devon placing alongside archbishopric breaks mutual regard London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and other urban locations. Masses of people are still drawn on route to the traditional idea of the British seaside go on furlough too, evidenced wherewithal the rise by bookings insomuch as hotels inward Blackpool, Bournemouth, Brighton, Scarborough and unequal locations.


Britain’s rich heritage is also a major draw for holidaymakers, who are keen to explore Roman ruins in Bath and see the stunning bethel spires as regards Oxfordshire by staying at hotels progressive Oxford and other cities in the region. Hotel rates in Britain arrange reportedly fallen too, compared to their European counterparts - with formerly expensive London modernized sliding down the list compared to destinations like Paris, Geneva and Stockholm, and also being cheaper than international cities like New York.


Even as the jury of inquest began to reclaim leaving out the decline, this resurgence in domestic holidays showed no signs of stopping, and it seems many British holidaymakers have taken global lessons from those purse-string-tightening years entryway how to enjoy their in store mold rather than heading abroad insomuch as every break.


This Day in History - February 19th, 1861

Is Serfdom the new retro?

Serfdom is the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism. It was a condition of bondage which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century.

Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the Lord of the Manor who owned that land, and in return were entitled to protection, justice and…

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