mammillary

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To show I totally can like Euphorbia, I took pictures of random Euphorbia I own. There’s a medusa hybrid, what I suspect is disembodied medusa snakes but I have no idea, variegated Euphorbia mammillaris, Euphorbia bicompacta in red, Euphorbia taruensis and… wait, are you really a Euphorbia? It’s really spiky and honestly I hate touching it.

See, I don’t not like them, it’s just, I really want to meet someone who OMFG LOVES THEM ABOVE ALL ELSE cause I’ve never heard of that ever.

Famous Patients in the Search to Understanding Memory

Patient R.B.

Suffered from an ischemic brain injury during surgery (basically hypoxia in the brain) and his symptoms were similar to that of Henry from a previous post, except this time the hippocampal cell loss was specifically in the CA1 subfield

Patient N.A. (literally got a fencing sword shoved up his nose while playing as a kid but whatever)

His damage was specifically in the medial diencephalon- Mammillary bodies of the Hypothalamus and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. This resulted in enduced Korsakoff’s syndrome (found in alcoholics)- leading similar memory impairments as, again, H.M. No new explicit memory. This is significant because while the hippocampus suffered no damage, the effects were the same, implying that memory consolidation isn’t exclusively contained in the hippocampus.

Patient K.C.- the definition of why you should never ride a motorcycle.

Just… Giant hole in the brain. This patient is still alive so we can’t exactly evaluate what happened, but it’s pretty obvious in the MRI

This appears to have caused bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal damage, leading to both anterograde and retrograde episodic amnesia. This means they have no memory of their life nor new memories forming. However, their semantic memory is in tact: i.e., he worked for a factory for years and he can still perform the tasks he did at work, but has no idea where he acquired this skill.

If you were to look at each of these images individually, you’d have no idea what the word was in the first or second picture, a possible idea by the third picture, a good idea by the fourth picture and honestly the fifth picture is probably there to demean you but oh well. Do this another time and you’d probably recognize the word by the first picture. This is referred to as priming. This task if performed by any of the patients mentioned above would show a consistent improvement, even though they’d have no memory of having done the task before