dumbteenbaby said:

Um.. You unfollowed me? I thought... We were pals? Sorry lmao

WHAT omg I’m sorry!!!!!!! I didn’t mean to!!! I’m on lobule so I always accidentally unfollow people!!! Sorry omg!!! We are

EpiCast Report: Breast Cancer (HER2-HER2+) - Epidemiology Forecast to 2023

EpiCast Report: Breast Cancer (HER2-, HER2+) - Epidemiology Forecast to 2023SummaryBreast cancer is a malignant tumor that originates in the breast tissues. Most breast cancers are invasive tumors that have grown beyond the ducts or lobules of the br

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The breast is composed of mainly fatty tissue. Within this tissue is a network of lobes, which are made up of tiny, tube-like structures called lobules that contain milk glands. Tiny ducts connect the glands, lobules, and lobes and carry the milk from the lobes to the nipple, located in the middle of the areola (darker area that surrounds the nipple of the breast). Blood and lymph vessels run throughout the breast; blood nourishes the cells, and the lymph system drains bodily waste products. The lymph vessels connect to lymph nodes

1.2.2 & 1.2.3 THE LIVER
  • largest organ inside body.
  • very important role in homeostasis.

Histology and gross structure

  • divided into lobes —> further divide into cylindrical lobules
  • vessels + chambers arranged to ensure best contact between blood and hepatocytes.

image

Vessels

  • Hepatic artery brings oxygenated blood to the liver.
  • Hepatic portal vein brings deoxygenated blood from the digestive system into the liver.
  • Blood leaves liver via hepatic vein, which rejoins vena cava and returns to normal circulation. 
  • Bile duct carries bile from liver to gall bladder, where it’s stored until needed to aid digestion of fats in the small intestine.

Arrangement of vessels in a lobule

  • Hepatic artery and portal vein split into smaller vessels that run between the lobules - the intra-lobular vessels.
  • Branches of these vessels actually enter the lobules, passing mixed blood along the sinusoids.
  • Blood drains from the sinusoids into the intra-lobular vessel, which join together to form the hepatic vein which carries blood away from liver.
  • The bile canalicili - small vessels of bile - join together to form the bile duct.  

Cells

Hepatocytes

  • cuboidal shape with many microvilli to increase absorption of substances from the blood. 
  • contain a lot of enzymes involved in detoxifying toxic substances.
  • specialised in amount of organelles depending on function:
  • protein synthesis, detoxification, transformation/storage of carbs, synthesis of cholesterol and biles salts.

Kupffer cells

  • specialised macrophages moving in sinusoids.
  • involved in breakdown and recycling of old erythrocytes.
  • product bilirubin from Hb breakdown excreted as part of bile and is the brown pigment in faeces. 

FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER

  • control of: blood glucose, amino acid and lipid levels.
  • synthesis of: erythrocytes in fetus, bile, plasma proteins, cholesterol.
  • storage of: vit A, D and N12, iron, glycogen.
  • Detoxification of: alcohol, drugs.
  • breakdown of: hormones, erythrocytes. 

--> Formation of urea

  • Excess amino acids can’t be stored as amino group is toxic. But wasteful to excrete whole molecule because contain a lot of valuable energy.
  • Therefore two processes occur:
  • Deamination: amine group removed from amino acid, produces highly soluble and toxic ammonia. Also produces keto acid which is entered into respiration to release its energy.
  • Ornithine cycle: ammonia combines with CO2 to produce urea (less toxic and soluble) and water. Urea passes back into blood to the kidneys, concentrated in urine and excreted from bladder.

—> Detoxification of alcohol (ethanol)

  • broken down by hepatocytes by ethanol dehydrogenase, to ethanal.
  • dehydrogenated further to final compound acetate, which is combined with CoA to form acetyl CoA which enters respiration.
  • released hydrogen atoms combine with NAD.
  • if liver has too much alcohol to detoxify, it has insufficient NAD to break down fatty acids for use in respiration. Fatty acids are converted back to lipids and stored in hepatocytes, causing enlarged ‘fatty liver’. 
Evolution and Brain Stuff, Y'all

Evolution and Brain Stuff, Y’all

The Authors: The article, entitled “Evolution of the Cerebellar Cortex: The Selective Expansion of Prefrontal-Projecting Cerebellar Lobules,” was researched and written by Dr. John Balsters, E. Cussans, Jörn Diedrichsen, Dr. Kathryn A. Phillips, Dr. Todd M. Preuss, Dr. James K. Rilling, and Dr. Narender Ramnani. All of these people have interests in the cerebellum and motor functions.

Hypothesi…

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EpiCast Report: Breast Cancer (HER2-, HER2+) ? Epidemiology Forecast to 2023

Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that originates in the breast tissues. Most breast cancers are invasive tumors that have grown beyond the ducts or lobules of the breast and can metastasize to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and the

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