Evernia prunastri
Family: Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes)
Genus: Evernia
Species: E. prunastri
Common Name: Oakmoss
Location: NT378632
Habitat: This common lichen grows on both broadleaved and coniferous trees. It has a highly branched structure and is pale green on top, white on bottom. It reproduces with small fluffy soredia at the edges of the thallus.
Determiner: Ewan Cole
Authority: (L.) Ach.

Maritime Sunburst Lichen

Xanthoria parietina on a live branch of Common hazel (Corylus avellana).

Xanthoria parietina (Teloschistaceae) is a conspicuous yellow foliose lichen that contain a compound that acts as both a sunscreen for the algal partner and also protects them from harmful UV rays. Hence this species is often found in sunny exposed places.

This lichen is tolerant of high levels of nitrogen, especially ammonia, and is common on trees and buildings near farmland. So, Xanthoria parietina can be used as a monitor for nitrogen in the atmosphere.

The species is widespread over Britain, Europe and America but in tropical countries and in Australia it is rather rare. 

Reference: [1]

Photo credit: ©Erminio Ferrari

Locality: unknown

Cup lichen

A beautiful macro view of the lichen Cladonia coccifera (Cladoniaceae) growing on the moderately well-manured, sandy H-pad of the Yuganskiy nature reserve HQ, Yugra, Western Siberia, Russia.

This lichen is characteristic by their red cup shaped fruit body (apothecium).

Cladonia coccifera inhabits on humus-rich soils, occasionally on wood, in mountain woodlands. It can be found in arctic to temperate regions in Asia, Europe, North and South America (along the Andes).

Reference: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©Tatiana Bulyonkava

Cladonia cristatella (British Soldier Lichen) | ©Roy Cohutta    (Calhoun County, Southwest Georgia, US)

British Soldiers is a lichen which gets its name from its resemblance to the uniforms worn by English soldiers during the Revolutionary War. 

The fungus in British Soldiers is called Cladonia cristatella. The algae is known as Trebouxia erici. Because lichens take the name of the fungus part of the relationship, British Soldiers is called Cladonia cristatella.

Cladonia cristatella (Lecanorales - Cladoniaceae) can usually be found growing on decaying wood, soil, mossy logs, tree bases, and stumps.

In the photo, one of the podetia (stalks) on the left side is broken (red apothecia absent on top), showing how the podetia are hollow. 


Xanthoria parietina
Family: Teloschistaceae (Lecanoromycetes)
Genus: Xanthoria
Species: X. parietina
Common Name: Common Orange/Yellow Lichen
Location: NT378632
Habitat: This foliose lichen is very common and usually grows on stone, but can also be found on dead/living trees. The species reproduces via apothecia and has small pale rhizoids, when KOH stain tested, the thallus turns bright scarlet. Don’t get confused between this and Xanthoria polycarpa, which is smaller. The colour can vary depending on sunlight and pollution levels - A grey shade indicates stress.
Determiner: Ewan Cole
Authority: (L.) Th. Fr