Richard III is Killed at Bosworth Field

22 August 1485

King Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field, on this day in British history, 22 August 1485. The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. The battle was won by the Lancastrians whose leader, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty. His opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle, and historians view Bosworth Field as marking the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it a defining moment of English and Welsh history.

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I’m avoiding the tags today because of obvious reasons but please, be you a Yorkist or a Lancastrian, do not forget that this man left behind two teenage children who had done nothing wrong and they lost their father in such a horrific way.

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History Meme | [1/1] war | Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses, (1455–85) were a series of dynastic civil wars whose violence and civil strife preceded the strong government of the Tudors. Fought between the Houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne, the wars were named many years afterward from the supposed badges of the contending parties: the white rose of York and the red of Lancaster.

Both houses claimed the throne through descent from the sons of Edward III. Since the Lancastrians had occupied the throne from 1399, the Yorkists might never have pressed a claim but for the near anarchy prevailing in the mid-15th century. After the death of Henry V in 1422 the country was subject to the long and factious minority of Henry VI. Great magnates with private armies dominated the countryside. Lawlessness was rife and taxation burdensome. Henry later proved to be feckless and simpleminded, subject to spells of madness, and dominated by his ambitious queen, Margaret of Anjou, whose party had allowed the English position in France to deteriorate.

Henry lapsed into insanity in 1453, causing a powerful baronial clique, backed by Richard Neville, the earl of Warwick (the “kingmaker”), to install Richard, duke of York, as protector of the realm. When Henry recovered in 1455 he reestablished the authority of Margaret’s party, forcing York to take up arms for self-protection. The first battle of the wars, at St. Albans (May 22, 1455), resulted in a Yorkist victory and four years of uneasy truce. Civil war was resumed in 1459. The Yorkists were successful at Blore Heath (September 23) but were scattered after a skirmish at Ludford Bridge (October 12). In France Warwick regrouped the Yorkist forces and returned to England in June 1460, decisively defeating the Lancastrian forces at Northampton (July 10). York tried to claim the throne but settled for the right to succeed upon the death of Henry. This effectively disinherited Henry’s son, Prince Edward, and caused Queen Margaret to continue her opposition.

Gathering forces in northern England, the Lancastrians surprised and killed York at Wakefield in December and then marched south toward London, defeating Warwick on the way at the Second Battle of St. Albans (Feb. 17, 1461). Meanwhile, York’s eldest son and heir, Edward, had defeated a Lancastrian force at Mortimer’s Cross (February 2) and marched to relieve London, arriving before Margaret on February 26. The young Duke of York was proclaimed King Edward IV at Westminster on March 4. Then Edward, with the remainder of Warwick’s forces, pursued Margaret north to Towton. There, in the bloodiest battle of the war, the Yorkists won a complete victory. Henry, Margaret, and their son fled to Scotland. The first phase of the fighting was over, except for the reduction of a few pockets of Lancastrian resistance.

The next round of the wars arose out of disputes within the Yorkist ranks. Warwick and his circle were increasingly passed over at Edward’s court; more seriously, Warwick differed with the King on foreign policy. In 1469 civil war was renewed. Warwick and Edward’s rebellious brother George, duke of Clarence, fomented risings in the north; and in July, at Edgecote (near Banbury), defeated Edward’s supporters, afterward holding the King prisoner. By March 1470, however, Edward regained his control, forcing Warwick and Clarence to flee to France, where they allied themselves with the French king Louis XI and their former enemy, Margaret of Anjou. Returning to England (September 1470), they deposed Edward and restored the crown to Henry VI. Edward fled to the Netherlands with his followers and, securing Burgundian aid, returned to England in March 1471. Edward outmanoeuvred Warwick, regained the loyalty of Clarence, and decisively defeated Warwick at Barnet on April 14. That very day, Margaret had landed at Weymouth. Hearing the news of Barnet, she marched west, trying to reach the safety of Wales; but Edward won the race to the Severn. At Tewkesbury (May 4) Margaret was captured, her forces destroyed, and her son killed. Shortly afterward, Henry VI was murdered in the Tower of London. Edward’s throne was secure for the rest of his life (he died in 1483).

In 1483 Edward’s brother Richard III, overriding the claims of his nephew, the young Edward V, alienated many Yorkists, who then turned to the last hope of the Lancastrians, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII). With the help of the French and of Yorkist defectors, Henry defeated and killed Richard at Bosworth Field on Aug. 22, 1485, bringing the wars to a close. By his marriage to Edward IV’s daughter Elizabeth of York in 1486, Henry united the Yorkist and Lancastrian claims. Henry defeated a Yorkist rising supporting the pretender Lambert Simnel on June 16, 1487, a date which some historians prefer over the traditional 1485 for the termination of the wars. [X]

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this is my destiny: to put my son on the throne of england, and those who laughed at my visions and doubted my vocation will call me my lady, the king’s mother. i shall sign myself margaret regina, margaret the queen.

22 August 1485: Henry Tudor and his Lancastrian forces defeat Richard III’s Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field and end the War of Roses.

RED ROSE OF LANCASTER → a fanmix for the house of lancaster, for rightful kings and cousin wars

01: Writing On A Wall - The Dear Hunter | 02: Plans - Bloc Party | 03: Daniel in the Den - Bastille | 04: Horse And I - Bat For Lashes | 05: The Once And Future King - Bloc Party | 06: The Gauntlet - Dropkick Murphys | 07: Uprising - Muse | 08: Go Get Your Gun - The Dear Hunter | 09: Seven Nation Army - The White Stripes | 10: Help I’m Alive - Metric | 11: Victory Does Not Make Us Conquerors - Ramin Djawadi

[listen]

Watch on little-white-cello.tumblr.com

Just listen to it and feel royal as fuck.

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Jasper/Elizabeth AU - requested by anonymous

She had been a Lancastrian, daughter to one of Margaret of Anjou’s closest ladies. He was a brother to the King, albeit matrilineally. He was Lancaster through and through. They had met at court whilst she was still married to John Grey and she had been one of the most beautiful women he had ever seen. She barely gave him a thought, at least until he delivered the news of her husband’s death. He lauded her dead husband’s bravery at leading the Lancastrian cavalry charge and nearly running the Yorkist pretender through. She cursed the second meeting at St. Albans and her husband’s loyalty, wondering what would become of her sons whilst her shrewish mother-in-law still lived. As time passed, Jasper and Elizabeth grew closer and became confidantes, his feelings grew, whilst her grief didn’t threaten to swallow her up in this rough Welshman’s presence. 

Her sons inheritance could not be obtained, Elizabeth wrote to Jasper in vain as he maintained the Welsh marches for Lancaster. She realised that to maintain her sons position and pride drastic action would need to be taken. She met the Yorkist pretender whilst he was on his way north and summoned all her charm to ensure the help she needed. Jasper’s letters were left unanswered and he left his post at Pembroke in a hurry lest something terrible had happened.

And it had. She had secretly married the Yorkist pretender. He felt betrayed, not only for Lancaster but for the as yet unstated feelings, secretly he had hoped for a relationship following the mould of his mother and father’s. Yet she had married the usurper, not the Welshman, his tale was not of a Welsh bard and a widowed queen, his was of betrayal and sides to be taken. She had chosen her side and he, his.

Elizabeth had chosen security and safety for her Grey sons instead of following the nagging in the back of her head and heart. She was confident she had done the right thing and was resolved to forget the name Tudor and all the memories associated with it.

When Edward passed and the turbulence of the House of York reappeared, she had thought again of the rough, unmannered Tudor and the comfort he had delivered following John’s death. When Tudor won Bosworth, she allowed herself to feel a glimmer of hope at his reappearance. Brittany had changed him, war had changed him, but his eyes remained the same. They had brief weeks of happiness when their acquaintance was renewed, the feelings between them unacknowledged in words, yet recognised in the way they acted around one another.

This happiness was shattered when his nephew elevated him to Duke of Bedford, a title which Elizabeth had hoped would allow her to marry him, until it was announced that he was to marry her younger sister, Katherine. The Yorkist years were to be repeated again, of silence, regret and betrayal. Jasper’s undying loyalty to Lancaster, meant silent agreement, whilst Elizabeth retreated to Bermondsey suffocating under the grief for her second husband and the death of the brief happiness she had with Jasper.

On this day in history…

7 August 1485: Henry Tudor lands an army in Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire.

The Wars of the Roses had been taking place for thirty years when Henry Tudor, son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort, returned to England accompanied by his uncle, Jasper Tudor, and a large army. Richard III had been on the throne for over two years, but the Yorkist king faced many betrayals and potential rebellions. Henry Tudor was the last real Lancastrian threat, and Richard chose to meet his enemy at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. Although the Yorkist forces outnumbered those of Lancaster, some of Richard’s most significant allies switched sides once the battle began - most importantly, Henry Tudor’s stepfather, Thomas Stanley. Richard was killed in battle and Henry became king of England as Henry VII. As he had made an alliance with the Woodvilles before his invasion, Henry took Elizabeth of York as his wife and queen. This marriage united the houses of York and Lancaster and effectively ended the Wars of the Roses.

On this day in history, 12 August, in 1469, Execution of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers and father to Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and his son John Woodville at Kenilworth on the order of the Earl of Warwick.

Richard Woodville, 1st Earl of Rivers, d. 1469, English nobleman. He was knighted (1426) by Henry VI and acquired wealth and power by marrying (c.1436) Jacquetta of Luxemburg, widow of John of Lancaster, duke of Bedford. He served in the wars in France and helped suppress the rebellion (1450) of Jack Cade in England. In the Wars of the Roses, Rivers fought for Henry VI until the Lancastrian defeat at Towton (1461). He then transferred his loyalty to the Yorkist Edward IV, to whom he gave his daughter Elizabeth in marriage in 1464. He and his family soon received extensive royal favors, Rivers himself becoming treasurer and then constable (1467) of England. He was created earl in 1466. The favoritism shown the Woodville faction embittered Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who rebelled in 1469. Richard and John who were fighting on Edward’s side were captured and executed.

Cautious and manipulative founder of a dynasty.

In 1483, Henry Tudor ( aka. Henry Tudur) became a leading Lancastrian contender for the throne of England. Seizing and holding the throne was another matter. During the decades of the War of the Roses both the Lancastrians and Yorkists were decimated. The Lancastrians emerged victorious and were seen as the rightful claimant.

After taking the throne, king Henry VII disarmed the nobility, a maneuver essential for consolidation and restoration of royal authority. The infamous Star Chamber was revived. He kept his promise to marry Elizabeth of York, thereby affirming his legitimacy. She bore him eight children, including the future King Henry VIII. An Historical Figure of England, Tudor Dynasty.

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