lab techniques

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These stunning photos are on display at the Seattle Aquarium in a new exhibit, featuring the work of scientist & artist Adam Summers. The fish’s tissues have been stained with dye, a technique that is often used in the lab. But when perfected, it can also create gorgeous art.

One thing that makes fish particularly beautiful when dyed this way is that they are very complex—in some ways, more so than people:

For instance, fish have a lot more bones than, say, mammals. A person has over 200 bones in all, while there are 200 bones just in a fish’s head and the start of its vertebral column, Summers says. “That level of sort of repetitiveness draws the eye. It’s kinda cool.”

See more photos at National Geographic.

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How to do it: cryogenic distillation. 

What is cryogenic distillation? A flask with compounds and a volatile solvent in it in connected to a tube what ends in a liquid nitrogen cooled trap while the whole system is closed. The volatile solvents (in this case dichloromethane) distills out from the room temperature flask and condenses into the −196 °C (77 K; −321 °F) cold liquid nitrogen trap. When all solvents are removed the product is left behind (hopefully crystals at the bottom of the flask) what was previously dissolved in the solvent.

Why is a balloon at the end of the whole system? It there would be no balloon or the system would be open to the atmoshere, the nitrogen trap would condense liquid oxygen and dry ice into the trap and not the solvent what we are want. The other reason is, that if the system would be closed, any external pressure would be “trapped” inside what could cause serious problems.

Most people’s first reaction: Oh my God! Is that a girl doing science?!
My first reaction: YOUNG LADY, WHERE ARE YOUR SAFETY GOGGLES, LAB COAT, GLOVES, AND ALL OTHER PPE?!
My second reaction: PUT YOUR HAIR IN A PONY TAIL SO YOUR HEAD DOESN’T CATCH ON FIRE.
My third reaction: TAKE OUT THOSE HOOP EARRINGS. THAT IS A SAFETY HAZARD.
My fourth reaction: I can’t believe the NIH posted this picture on their Facebook page. That is practically asking for a major fine from OSHA.
My fifth reaction: LABEL YOUR GODDAMN CHEMICALS! I don’t give a fuck if that is tap water with dye in it. For all I know it could be corrosive and/or lethal and/or bad for the environment to dispose of down the drain.
My sixth reaction: Oh look at her doing sciencey stuff. She has a lot to learn about lab safety, but one day she might be a role model to other aspiring female scientists!

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The One Where Someone Out There’s Experimenting, Only Using The Whole World As Their Lab

Helena: How do scientists put baby inside woman?
Walter: …
Helena: …
Walter: I suppose with great precision and a very long needle. Although Belly always used to say that the size of the needle was irrelevant compared to where it was inserted and the angle-

IMAGE  Australian Beefwood (Casuarina cunninghamiana)
Cross-section of a stem and seven small leaves (microphylls)
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Under an Ultraviolet [UV] lamp, things fluoresce in different ways. They don’t look the same color as under daylight.  So, ultraviolet light is used ‒ here, under a microscope ‒ to reveal features and differences not seen in visible light.

When examined with the unaided eye, the specimen above appeared to have needles (which it is not supposed to).

Investigating with a UV microscope revealed that instead of a single needle this is a stem with seven small leaves. Not everything is as it appears to our eye.

  • The red fluorescence is from chlorophyll in the very small pentagon shaped leaves.
  • The blue fluorescence is from secondary metabolites in the vascular (central) and epidermal (outer) tissue.

IMAGE: Gregory Johnson and ASU - Ask A Biologist

Techniques in Organic Chemistry

Techniques in Organic Chemistry is basically the most complete presentation of lab techniques on hand for organic chemistry pupils—and the least pricey. This e-book is supposed to serve as a laboratory textbook of testal techniques for all students of pure chemistry.  It is written to provide environment friendly toughen for guided-inquiry and design-based tests and initiatives, in addition to for conventional lab tests. Techniques in Organic Chemistry mixs explicit instructions for 3 totally totally different forms of laboratory glassware (miniscale, standard-taper microscale, Williamson microscale). It offers intensive protection of spectroscopic meanss and a strong emphasis on safety issues. It can be used along with any lab tests to provide the background and expertises vital for getting to know the natural chemistry laboratory..Techniques in Organic Chemistry

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Eric and Jim go over the basics of doing a frozen section. Crew: Eric Miller and Jim Geimer (presentation), Mike Nguyen (filming), Jean Oak (editing)

Tutorial and notes on embedding tissue and sectioning using a cryomicrotome. Note that in this video, they do not use an anti-rolling glass to secure their section. 

anonymous asked:

There are a few techniques of site-direct mutagenesis in vivo but idk how those could work in adult humans out of a lab. But what if instead of a mutation vampirism was caused by an additional "vampire gene" that was inserted to the genome like a virus? If the germ cells got infected or if the “virus” or whatever dna carrier structure infected the baby then a human could, theoretically have a vampire baby.

Aye but that’s using lab techniques usually involving homologous recombination machinery so there has to be donor DNA involved, so it doesn’t change the fact that it wouldn’t occur randomly in the germline.

I was pondering this during a very boring seminar today and retroviral integration seems like a good candidate, with the provirus being what causes the phenotype.

BUT the virus would be a) transmitted by vampires and b) transmitted reliably (see last post) which means that for it to be present in the mother or father to either infect the baby or insert into the germline, they have to have had it transmitted to them which means they have to have been turned.

The exception would be if a mother was infected when she was carrying a child and the child somehow managed to survive and have it passed on. HELLO BLADE. 

A full scientific analysis on all things dust will be arriving in the fandom soon.

Due to recent events over the past few weeks concerning the three main groups of dust—smut, fluff, and angst—I will be publishing a scientific report on as many aspects of dust as I can with today’s modern fandom technology and lab techniques. This will be an in-depth guide ranging from the detailed effects of each dust on a subject or user to a list of safety tips when snorting.

If there are any members of the fandom that wish to prompt Clair Shady Science Lady with questions concerning any of the three dusts, please drop them in the ask box. They will be answered and included in the report.

anonymous asked:

Hey just wondering what your opinion on your biomedical science degree was? Thinking of studying it it's between that or a more general science degree to eventual study postgrad medicine?😌

Hi!

I personally loved studying biomed. The endless lectures, the frequent lab practicals and essays upon essays. It wasn’t easy; my family joked that I worked harder in biomed than in medicine, and there’s a kernel of truth in it!

My course was quite diverse, we studied core biochemistry, organic chemistry, immunology, metabolism, molecular biology, anatomy, physiology, microbiology, forensic science and general fundamental science skills including statistics and lab technique. I struggle to even remember all the subjects, and we had scope to choose some modules to suit our interests. It worked well for a generalist like me, who find it hard to settle on one subject and just want to ‘learn all the science’. I really enjoyed my time in my first degree, and it was certainly a good thing for me.

Most biomed courses prepare and qualify you to work in a lab processing hospital samples, or as a stepping stone to research, so biomed has the additional benefit of being a vocational degree in itself. Which is quite handy if along the way you decide medicine is not for you, or don’t get in. Lots of my biomed friends changed their minds about what they wanted to do; we mature, we re-examine our lives, and it can be really useful to have time to think about what we want out of life.

Not everybody likes the buffet approach to studying. Some people do best when they can focus on one subject which they really, really love, and that’s OK too. Plenty of my colleagues studied first degrees of a more specialised nature. As long as the medical schools you are interested in will accept your subject, then there really is no strict need to do biomedicine. Many people are really great at one subject but have little interest or little skill in others. However, be careful when picking a subject, especially when it is specific.Make sure it is something you have good reason to believe you like Because you’re going to be stuck with it for a loooooong time!

I enjoyed all subjects but one; biochemistry. Maybe it was the lecturer’s habit of squeezing 60 slides of full text per an hour’s lectures, only to base half the exam essay topics on footnotes. Maybe I just particularly sucked at remembering enzyme cascades. I worked so much harder to prepare for those exams, and still did worse than in my other subjects. Fortunately, I had enough of an idea from A-level that it might be that way and didn’t go for biochemistry as a degree. If I had, I would have had to change to another course for sure. And luckily most universities allow this for students having difficulty with their course. It happens; if you are one of the unlucky few, don’t be afraid to get help and change to something you really do enjoy.

There’s also one thing to remember: clinical medicine and lab/lecture science are very, very different. I’ve had friends love the theory side but hate the clinical side; they’re probably going into research rather than clinical practice. I’ve had friends who are absolutely made to be doctors but who really hated the lecture and lab side of things, and that does not mean they can’t make it. If you or any of your friends are struggling through a subject, it does not make you dumb, or mean that you won’t be really, really good at something else. Good luck in making your choice, I hope this overlong summary was helpful.

Day 51

Setting up some more PCR primers so that I’ll be set to go next week! Finished PCRs for C. Natalensis project and filling in holes for Batis! Can’t wait to learn DNA extraction and genotyping techniques. Research lab is honestly one of my favorite hobbies these days (:

This course provides an outline of vertebrate functional neuroanatomy, aided by studies of comparative neuroanatomy and evolution, and by studies of brain development. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions. In addition, lab techniques are reviewed and students perform brain dissections.

Je vais suivre ce cours histoire de mieux connaitre le cerveau.  En espérant que cela m’aide à récupérer davantage.