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THE SECRET LIFE OF JELLYFISH

Jellyfish, most of the time, look nothing like jellyfish. They look like tiny little bread-crumb sized sea anemones.

These “polyps”, as they’re technically (tragically?) called, can hide all over the place; under shells, docks, logs, etc.

They’re also really good at copying themselves. One polyp can turn into hundreds over a season by growing and dividing. The best part? Like little living 3D printers, they can churn out copies of their same old polyp body over and over again … or they can mix things up and start making a different body: Jellyfish.

Jellyfish as we know them start their lives as little jelly rolls (see what I just did there?) on the polyp body. Each jelly roll develops into a wee jellyfish, which eventually breaks off and swims into the ocean, starting the whole cycle over.

Continue reading at Deep Sea News …
_________________________________________

Based on research reported in Current Biology, Volume 24, Issue 3, 263-273, 16 January 2014: Björn Fuchs, et al.  Regulation of Polyp-to-Jellyfish Transition in Aurelia aurita

The first analysis of life-cycle regulation in a basal metazoan
The life cycle of scyphozoan cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in the drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown.

Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish transition in a basal metazoan and provide insights into the evolution of complex life cycles in the animal kingdom.

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Hairy Mycena
Macro Mycography by Steve Axfordsteveax1 ] on Flickr
All Rights Reserved

Closeups of tiny Mycena fungi. This species is (as yet) unidentified and is about 1cm high, though specimens do reach 2-3cm high and up to 4mm across the cap.

The hairs are infertile cells that appear to discourage predation by insects or small animals.

These were found near Booyong in northern NSW and are the first of this group of fungi that have been found in Australia.

Fungi [kingdom] → Basidiomycota [division] → Agaricomycetes [class] →
Agaricales [order] → Mycenaceae [family] → Mycena [genus]

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The Most Dangerous Species in the Mediterranean
CREDIT: Agencia Catalan de l’Aigua
Posted in March, 2011 on Visual.ly

The oceanic waters are home to many ferocious and intimidating creatures but the most dangerous of all creatures appears to be the humans. Human waste deposited into the oceanic waters can reap negative effects on the marine life in many ways.

This infographic examines the most common types of human wastes, how the waste affects the marine life, and how just how long the average lifespan of article is. Watch out for long living ferocious beasts like the plastic bottle, the tin can, and the battery.

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THE LARVAE (AND ADULT FEMALE) OF THE TRILOBITE BEETLE

The trilobite [beetle] genus (Duliticola) belongs to the family Lycidae, commonly known as net-winged beetles.

This family is a pretty interesting one, because many of its species display huge physical differences between their males and their females. Trilobite beetles are no exception. While the females are easily recognisable – that incredible form is retained from when they were larvae [see Wikipedia neoteny] – the males look entirely different. They pretty much just look like plain old beetles, with long, winged bodies and a pair of thick antennae. 

Bec Crew, Scientific American

  1. Trilobite Beetle larva (Duliticola hoseini) by nickybay on Flickr.
  2. Trilobite Beetle by Kurt (orionmystery.blogspot.com) on Flickr.
  3. Trilobite Beetle larva (Duliticola sp.) by nickybay on Flickr.
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May 27 marks the 107th anniversary of the birth of Rachel Louise Carson, the environmentalist whose research led to the 1972 banning, in the United States, of [DDT].

The American-born marine biologist and writer is best known for her 1962 book Silent Spring, which is credited with launching the global contemporary environmental movement.

Silent Spring focuses on the impact of synthetic pesticides on the environment—with the title referring to the absence of birdsong across swathes of agricultural landscape following the widespread introduction of pesticides and other intensive farming practices.

The book sparked a public outcry, bringing to widespread attention the effects of these chemicals both on the ecosystem and on human health.

Although her research was attacked by chemical companies, a decade after her book was published, and years after her death, her book led to a nationwide ban of DDT, a colourless and crystalline organochloride with insecticidal properties, and other pesticides. Silent Spring demonstrated that these pesticides could cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly to birds.

Reprinted from The Independent

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The Milky Way, along the Galactic plane
Seen in Wavelengths from Radio frequency through Gamma rays

  1. Radio map at 408 Mhz, showing mainly emission due to scattering of free electrons in the interstellar plasma (i.e. hot gas). The large arc is due to a nearby supernova remnant.
  2. 21 cm radiation map, showing the distribution of neutral Hydrogen gas in the galactic disk, and a few nearby arcs from recent supernovae.
  3. Distribution of H2, or molecular Hydrogen.This maps the “cold” gas in the Galaxy, from which stars will eventually form. The actual observed molecule is CO, rather than H2, which is very difficult to detect directly. The star forming layer of gas is remarkably thin. Infrared maps at the wavelengths 12, 60 and 100 microns.
  4. Infrared emission predominately comes from interstellar dust which is “warmed” to a few 10’s of degrees Kelvin by the ambient radiation field of the Galaxy’s stars.
  5. Near Infrared emission is dominated by cool stars. Since these are typically either old or long-lived stars, this is our best view of the Galaxy with the hot, bright young stars removed. Dust absorption at these wavelengths is very low and we get a clear view all the way to the Galactic center of the disk and bulge.
  6. Optical image of the Galaxy showing the huge effects that dust absorption has on our view of the central regions of the Galaxy. The emission is dominated by young and old stars and by the effects of dust.
  7. X-ray image taken by the Rosat satellite. This view, less clear than the others is dominated by supernova remnants (some of the arc-like features) as well as individual sources of X-radiation from close binary stars or black hole candidates.
  8. Gamma ray view of the Galaxy is dominated by emission from Cosmic Rays (high energy particles) decelerating in the interstellar medium

SOURCE: Chris Flynn’s Galactic Dynamics: Discovering the Milky Way

FLY-BY OF A SCHWARZSCHILD BLACK HOLE
What you’re seeing is a sequence of “Einstein Rings” 

Einstein Ring is a term from observational astronomy. It’s an artifact of the gravitational lensing of light (from a star or galaxy) by a massively massive astronomical object (like a black hole or another galaxy).

In order for an Einstein Ring to appear, all three—the light source, the massive lens, and the observer—must all be aligned. In other words, it occurs when the object that you’re seeing as an Einstein ring is directly behind the object that is the gravitational lens.

Gravitational lensing is predicted by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Instead of light from a source traveling in a straight line (in three dimensions), it is bent by the presence of a massive body, which distorts spacetime.

The animation above is a simulation depicting a zoom-in on a Schwarzschild black hole in front of the Milky Way.

  • The first Einstein ring corresponds to the most distorted region of the picture and is clearly depicted by the galactic disc.
  • The zoom then reveals a series of 4 extra rings, increasingly thinner and closer to the black hole shadow. They are easily seen through the multiple images of the galactic disk.

The odd-numbered rings correspond to [images of objects] which are behind the black hole (from the observer’s point of view);  they correspond here to the bright yellow region of the galactic disc (close to the galactic center).

The even-numbered rings correspond to images of objects which are behind the observer.  These objects appear bluer since the corresponding part of the galactic disc is thinner and hence dimmer.  [WP]

SOURCE:  Einstein ring - Wikipedia).
The animation was created by Wikipedia contributor Urbane Legend.

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Words of Wisdom from the Language of Physics

I get it that the whole point is the words and not the formulas. But just so you’ll know (I didn’t know them all before I tracked them down), here’s what the formulas are for.

[1] Einstein: the relationship between mass and energy 

The caption in the graphic is wrong.  You don’t get heavier, you get massier

[2] Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

[3] Lorenz/Einstein Time Dilation 

[4] Coulomb’s inverse-square law

[5] Bekenstein–Hawking formula for the entropy of a black hole

[6] Boltzmann’s entropy formula 
________________________________

SOURCE for the infographic
Posted all over the place, but my source is "Words of Wisdom found in Math Formulas”.  Actually, though, these are physics formulas. Since math is the language of science, they’re math formulas, too.  Hmm, I see there’s a previous post that makes more or less the same comment. 

How to think you got something out of nothing

TRIANGLE GEOMETRIC PUZZLE // The Missing Square 
From Michael Bach's Visual Phenomena & Optical Illusions 

Where is the missing square? What happens here? This is no computer trick, it would work just as well with pieces cut from cardboard. 

Read about this optical illusion in Wikipedia

NOTE: This is sometimes mistakenly called “Curry’s Paradox,” because it was originated by a New York magician named Paul Curry.  The actual Curry’s Paradox is a paradox in logic named for Haskell Curry.

io9 has an explanation of the solution

Source: Triangle Puzzle

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Titin — also known as connectin — is a giant protein that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle. … Titin is important in the contraction of striated muscle tissues.  

More info in Wikipedia …

C169 723H270 464N45 688O52 243S912.

LOWER IMAGE: [Wikimedia] crystallographic structure of the protein titin based on PDB 1BPV

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Rosalind Franklin’s 1952 X-ray diffraction image of DNA, known as photo 51, led to James Watson and Francis Crick’s famous model of the double helix. 

The photograph provided key information that was essential for developing a model of DNA.The diffraction pattern determined the helical nature of the double helix strands (antiparallel). The outside linings of DNA have a phosphate backbone, and codes for inheritance are inside the helix. Watson and Crick’s calculations from Franklin’s photography gave crucial parameters for the size and structure of the helix.

James Watson was shown the photo by Maurice Wilkins without Rosalind Franklin’s approval or knowledge and along with Francis Crick, Watson used characteristics and features of Photo 51 to develop the chemical model of DNA molecule. 

SOURCES: Nature News & Comment and Wikipedia.

TOP IMAGE source  |||  LOWER IMAGE source

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MAJOR EARTHQUAKE TODAY

(CNN) — An 8.2-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of northern Chile on Tuesday, generating a tsunami, authorities said.

The U.S. Geological Survey reported the quake, which hit at at 6:46 p.m. local time, was centered some 60 miles northwest of Iquique at a depth of 12.5 miles.

Chile’s National Emergency Office tweeted Tuesday night that it was asking everyone to evacuate the South American nation’s coast.  

A tsunami warning was in effect for Chile, Peru and Ecuador.

A tsunami watch was issued for Colombia, Panama and Costa Rica, according to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center.

USGS National Earthquake Information Center

The April 1, 2014 M 8.2 earthquake in northern Chile occurred as the result of thrust faulting at shallow depths near the Chilean coast.

The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with slip on the primary plate boundary interface, or megathrust, between the Nazca and South America plates. At the latitude of the earthquake, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South America plate at a rate of 65 mm/yr.

Subduction along the Peru-Chile Trench to the west of Chile has led to uplift of the Andes mountain range and has produced some of the largest earthquakes in the world, including the 2010 M 8.8 Maule earthquake in central Chile, and the largest earthquake on record, the 1960 M 9.5 earthquake in southern Chile.

NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT NUMBER   3
NWS PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER EWA BEACH HI
235 PM HST TUE APR 01 2014

TO - CIVIL DEFENSE IN THE STATE OF HAWAII
SUBJECT - TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT

THIS STATEMENT IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY.
NO ACTION IS REQUIRED AT THIS TIME. HOWEVER… THE TSUNAMI THREAT TO HAWAII IS STILL BEING EVALUATED.

THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER HAS ISSUED AN EXPANDING REGIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND WATCH FOR PARTS OF THE PACIFIC  LOCATED CLOSER TO THE EARTHQUAKE. AN EVALUATION OF THE PACIFIC WIDE TSUNAMI THREAT IS UNDERWAY AND THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT HAWAII COULD BE ELEVATED TO A WATCH OR WARNING STATUS.

 IF TSUNAMI WAVES IMPACT HAWAII THEIR ESTIMATED EARLIEST ARRIVAL TIME IS   0324 AM HST WED 02 APR 2014

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