Save the Honeybee, Sterilize the Earth            

By Josh Dzieza  


A decade ago, people started panicking about the collapse of the honeybee population and the crash of our food supply. But today there are more honeybees than there were then. We have engineered our way to a frenzied and precarious new normal.


For the past seven years, as has been widely reported, honeybees have been dying at an alarming rate. Yet today there are slightly more hives in the [USA] than before the die-offs began. That’s because beekeeping [operations] have moved beyond panic and begun quietly adjusting to a strenuous way of doing business, one that requires constant monitoring, treatment, supplemental feeding, rapid replacement of dead hives, and grudging participation in an agricultural system that grows increasingly inhospitable to the bees it needs to survive. […]

For the vast majority of their history, beekeepers moved their bees in order to make more honey, not to pollinate crops. In fact, pollination itself is a phenomenon few farmers understood until relatively recently. As late as the 1880s, some farmers banished beekeepers from the their farms, believing that bees robbed pollen and killed fruit. It’s a forgivable misunderstanding. The farmers didn’t realize that the bees had evolved to be messy eaters, carrying pollen grains on their fur. And with swarms of native bumblebees, orchard bees, and feral honeybees always around, fruit happened with beekeepers or without. In a natural ecosystem, or even a small multi-crop farm, there were always enough plants in bloom at any given time to sustain a resident population of pollinators.

But when farmers began planting larger plots with one crop, the natural balance of pollination was distorted. A monoculture, as it’s called, can’t sustain all the wild insects it needs to pollinate it, because there’s nothing for the insects to eat when the main crop isn’t in bloom. Monoculture farmers noticed that their trees would flower abundantly yet produce hardly any fruit, which led to the discovery that many fruit trees are self-sterile: To produce, they need to be planted in mixed varieties, and they need insects to ferry pollen from one variety to another.

Honeybees provided a convenient solution. Whereas many bees native to North America are solitary, fly only a few hundred feet to forage, and have evolved to pollinate a single plant species, honeybees are opportunistic eaters, fly more than two miles, and live in resilient, easily transported hives. By the early 20th century, farmers were signing occasional contracts with local beekeepers to pollinate orchards. In 1918, the naturalist John Harvey Lovell concluded that “the fruit-culture of the future must be largely dependent on the domestic bee, the only agency in crossing which can be controlled by man.”

The dramatic transformation of our relationship with the honeybee, however, began in the years following World War II, as the mechanization of agriculture drastically increased the size of the nation’s farms and the use of pesticides exploded. This marked the decline of many remaining wild pollinators, and the beginning of the honeybee’s shift from a semi-domesticated producer of honey to a living tool integral to industrial agriculture. In the past several decades migratory pollination has only become a bigger portion of the beekeeping industry, surpassing revenues from honey sales sometime around 2007. The economic shift from honey to pollination was a long time coming, but two things finally tipped the balance…

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Article source: PSMag

Images: Illustration by Tom Cocotos; Photos by Max Whittaker/Prime

h/t to plantyhamchuk

#bees #pollinators #pollination #agriculture #orchard culture #economics

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Illustrations of African blood-sucking flies other than mosquitoes and tsetse-flies, by Ernest Edward Austen, assistant in the Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History); with coloured figures by Grace Edwards. on Flickr.

By Austen, E. E. (Ernest Edward), 1867-1938 
British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.
Publication info
London,Printed by order of the Trustees,1909.
BHL Collections:
Smithsonian Libraries

The ecologist Ruth DeFries calls the last half-century of agricultural industrialization “the Big Ratchet.” It is the latest and most extreme example of a cycle of technological innovation that has allowed humanity to thrive in the face of constant ecological crises. For thousands of years people have been coming up with new ways to wring more food from nature, then running up against some ecological barrier—often a side effect of the original innovation—and engineering a way around it.

Humans invented agriculture, which depleted the soil, which they replenished with animal and human manure, which allowed towns to grow, which caused septic disease, so sewers were invented, which diverted night soil from the fields, so fertilizer was invented, which made monocultures possible, which allowed pests to run rampant, so insecticides were invented; and so it went, accelerating exponentially as the population grew from a billion-and-a-half people to seven billion in the last century, more and more of them living in cities, where they’re fed by fewer people harnessing technology to manage ever larger crops.

DeFries calls each innovation a ratchet, and the inevitable obstacle a hatchet. Technology ratchets up the population. Then the hatchet falls, and a new ratchet must be invented.
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Summer Entomology by Edward A. Samuels - August 1879.

Illustrations by Antoine Sonrel and engraved by Henry Marsh.

Love this so much! It was a christmas present from my boyfriend. 

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Here’s further proof that bees are awesome. Rotterdam-based designer Tomáš Gabzdil Libertíny of Studio Libertiny collaborated with a swarm of bees to create Thousand Years, a beautiful beeswax sculpture shaped like a teapot. This one-of-a-kind experimental sculpture was commissioned by French fine silver manufacturer Christofle. Libertíny worked with Dutch beekeeper Johan Beckers and his busy colony of 60,000 bees, who built their intricate honeycomb over a metal scaffold.

The Thousand Years project took two takes to complete: the first attempt was unsuccessful due to a variety of factors including location and local weather conditions; the project was then moved to a less windy location near Rotterdam, where it was completed in August 2014. The success and beauty of the project is also a statement about the bee colony’s health and strength, as well as the quality of local flora; no bees were exploited or displaced.

Click here to watch a video about this amazing art project and get a close-up look at the Thousand Years teapot.

Visit the Studio Libertiny website to explore more of Tomáš Gabzdil Libertíny’s creations, including other honeycomb sculptures.

[via Inhabitat]