impulsivity

neurotypicals will yell at neurodivergent people for refusing medicine-based treatment, but are the same people who complain about overdiagnosing, conspiracies about how the government wants to diagnose everyone with something so they can medicate everyone into a stupor, and how depression is cured with yoga and people with impulse control issues ‘just need self-control, not medication’.

pick a fucking side.

anonymous asked:

What if one time during a mission in order to save Jamie Bart had to give up all their memories together, and in turn doesn't remember Bluebeetle as Jamie, or even knowing Jamie at all. So Jamie wakes up saved, but Bart wakes up confronted by the beetle who made him a slave. And then angst happens.

too much angst in my inbox but eeeeep  Bart and Jaime having to rebuild their entire relationship, and Bart doesn’t even want to be around Blue Beetle, but when he absolutely has to, he’s constantly flinching and tensing up. All the while there’s this horrible ache in Bart’s chest like he’s missing something, or someone, important and at first he can’t figure out why. 

Exploring the Genetics of “I’ll Do It Tomorrow”

Procrastination and impulsivity are genetically linked, suggesting that the two traits stem from similar evolutionary origins, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The research indicates that the traits are related to our ability to successfully pursue and juggle goals.

“Everyone procrastinates at least sometimes, but we wanted to explore why some people procrastinate more than others and why procrastinators seem more likely to make rash actions and act without thinking,” explains psychological scientist and study author Daniel Gustavson of the University of Colorado Boulder. “Answering why that’s the case would give us some interesting insights into what procrastination is, why it occurs, and how to minimize it.”

From an evolutionary standpoint, impulsivity makes sense: Our ancestors should have been inclined to seek immediate rewards when the next day was uncertain.

Procrastination, on the other hand, may have emerged more recently in human history. In the modern world, we have many distinct goals far in the future that we need to prepare for – when we’re impulsive and easily distracted from those long-term goals, we often procrastinate.

Thinking about the two traits in that context, it seems logical that people who are perpetual procrastinators would also be highly impulsive. Many studies have observed this positive relationship, but it is unclear what cognitive, biological, and environmental influences are responsible for it.

The most effective way to understand why these traits are correlated is to study human twins. Identical twins — who share 100% of their genes — tend to show greater similarities in behavior than fraternal twins, who only share 50% of their genes (just like any other siblings). Researchers take advantage of this genetic discrepancy to figure out the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on particular behaviors, like procrastination and impulsivity.

Gustavson and colleagues had 181 identical-twin pairs and 166 fraternal-twin pairs complete several surveys intended to probe their tendencies toward impulsivity and procrastination, as well as their ability to set and maintain goals.

They found that procrastination is indeed heritable, just like impulsivity. Not only that, there seems to be a complete genetic overlap between procrastination and impulsivity — that is, there are no genetic influences that are unique to either trait alone.

That finding suggests that, genetically speaking, procrastination is an evolutionary byproduct of impulsivity — one that likely manifests itself more in the modern world than in the world of our ancestors.

In addition, the link between procrastination and impulsivity also overlapped genetically with the ability to manage goals, lending support to the idea that delaying, making rash decisions, and failing to achieve goals all stem from a shared genetic foundation.

Gustavson and colleagues are now investigating how procrastination and impulsivity are related to higher-level cognitive abilities, such as executive functions, and whether these same genetic influences are related to other aspects of self-regulation in our day-to-day lives.

“Learning more about the underpinnings of procrastination may help develop interventions to prevent it, and help us overcome our ingrained tendencies to get distracted and lose track of work,” Gustavson concludes.

Dealing with Anger and Impulsivity

First of all, anger is not always a negative emotion. Anger can be a very productive emotion. It’s what makes us want to change the things which are wrong. It’s what inspires us to make things better, to say things we’ve been meaning to say, and to motivate ourselves. But what about when anger seems to consume us? What about when anger leads to impulsive decisions? We may say or do things in the “heat of the moment” which we may later regret.

You can’t always avoid people and situations which make you angry, but you can learn how to control the situations and how you respond to them.

  • Keep yourself healthy. Anger is much harder to control when you are hungry or tired. Pulling an all-night or skipping a meal is bound to make you more irritable.
  • Be aware of which substances you take which affects your irritability, such as caffeine. Does caffeine help you, or does it put you on edge? Keep up with how your body reacts to things.
  • Be aware of your anger “triggers” and prepare for them. Figure out what it is that triggers you, and keep track of what you do that eventually calms you. I know, for me, anger gives me too much adrenaline, so taking a walk is very helpful.
  • Practice relaxation techniques. Try different breathing methods, and retreating for a moment to put yourself in a calm place.
  • Change your language. Expressing your anger can be very healthy, but how you express that anger can be game-changing. Avoid insults and being condescending and instead present your case and form that anger into a passion for what you’re speaking about. Don’t make demands.
  • Come back to it later. Sometimes, you just need to give yourself time. Tell the person you need to come back to the conversation later when you’re thinking more clearly. If you’re like me, and anger makes your brain a mess, it can be hard to articulate what’s upsetting you. Take a break, and come back in half an hour or so.
  • Validate yourself. Remember that your anger is a normal response, and you are not wrong for feeling it.

To gain more insight into anger or impulsivity, think about a typical occasion when you were angry or impulsive and consider the following:

  • What happened?
  • Was this a one-time thing or is it part of a pattern?
  • What effect did your behavior have on the situation?
  • On you?
  • On others?
  • Was it useful?
  • Were you satisfied/content with the end result?
  • How did those around you feel?
  • Would you do it again the same way?
  • Would you change anything next time? 

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the signs in a crime show
  • Judge that declares everyone guilty:Aries
  • The one who finds the body:Taurus
  • The one who bails the murderer out of jail:Gemini
  • The one who got killed:Leo
  • The cop that does all the work:Virgo
  • Friend who covers for the murderer:Libra
  • The Witness:Cancer
  • The Lawyer:Scorpio
  • The lead investigator:Sagittarius
  • The Murderer:Capricorn
  • The one who hides the body:Aquarius
  • The comedic relief:Pisces

Avoid impulsive acts by imagining future benefits

Why is it so hard for some people to resist the least little temptation, while others seem to possess incredible patience, passing up immediate gratification for a greater long-term good?

The answer, suggests a new brain imaging study from Washington University in St. Louis, lies in how effective people are at feeling good right now about all the future benefits that may come from passing up a smaller immediate reward. Researchers found that activity in two regions of the brain distinguished impulsive and patient people.

“Activity in one part of the brain, the anterior prefrontal cortex, seems to show whether you’re getting pleasure from thinking about the future reward you are about to receive,” explains study co-author Todd Braver, PhD, professor of psychology in Arts & Sciences. “People can relate to this idea that when you know something good is coming, just that waiting can feel pleasurable.”

The study, which was published in the first issue of the Journal of Neuroscience this year, was designed to examine what happens in the brain as people wait for a reward, especially whether people characterized as “impulsive” would show different brain responses than those considered “patient.”

The lead author of the study was Koji Jimura, then a postdoctoral researcher in Braver’s Cognitive Control and Psychopathology Laboratory, and now a research associate professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in Japan.

Unlike previous research on delayed gratification that had people choose between hypothetical rewards of money over long delays (e.g, $500 now or $1,000 a year from now), this Washington University study presented their participants with real rewards of squirts of juice that they chose to receive either immediately or after a delay of up to a minute.

“It’s kind of funny because we treated the people in our study like researchers that work with animals do, and we actually squirted juice into their mouths,” Braver says.

Results show that a brain region called the ventral striatum (VS) ramped up its activity in impulsive people as they got closer and closer to receiving their delayed reward. The VS activity of patient people, on the other hand, stayed more constant.

The researchers interpreted these different brain responses to mean that impulsive people initially did not find the prospect of waiting for a reward very appealing. However, as they approached the time they’d receive that reward, they became more excited and their VS reflected that excitement.

“This gradual increase may reflect impatience or excessive anticipation of the upcoming reward in impulsive individuals,” says Jimura. This was unlike patient people, who were likely content with waiting for the reward from the start, as no changes in VS activity were observed for them.

The most novel finding of the study concerned the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). This is the part of the brain that helps you think about the future. Here, we found that the patient people heightened activity in the aPFC when they first started waiting for they reward, which then decreased as the time to receive the reward approached. Impulsive people didn’t show this brain activity pattern.

“The aPFC appears to allow you to create a mental simulation of the future. It helps you consider what it’ll be like getting the future reward. In this way, you can get access to the utility and satisfaction in the present,” says Braver.

By thinking about the future reward, patient people were able to gain what economists call “anticipatory utility.” While their reward was far away in time, they were giddy with anticipation in the present. Conversely, impulsive people weren’t thinking beyond the present and so did not feel pleasure when they were told they had to wait. Their excitement built only as they got closer to receiving their reward.

Overall this study suggests that people may be impulsive because they do not or cannot imagine the future, so they prefer rewards right away. This research could be useful for assessing the effects of clinical treatments for impulsivity problems, which can lead to issues such as problem gambling and substance abuse disorders. A similar brain imaging approach as was used in the Washington University study could allow clinicians to track the effects of an intervention on changes not only in impulsive behavior but also changes in patients’ brain responses.

“One possible treatment approach could be to enhance mental functions in aPFC, a brain region well-known to be associated with cognitive control,” says Jimura. By increasing cognitive control, impulsive patients could learn to reject their immediate impulses.

Impulsivity occurs not only in a clinical setting but also every day in our own lives. Applying his research to his personal life, Braver says, “When I’m successful at achieving long-term goals it’s from explicitly trying to activate that goal and imagining each decision as helping me achieve it, to keep me on track.” Perhaps adopting this strategy of focusing on the long-term could help us move past present distractions and move toward our future goals.

The best way I have heard borderline personality disorder described is having been born without a skin - with no barrier to ward off real or perceived emotional assaults. What might have been a trivial slight to others was for me an emotional catastrophe.
—  Williams 1998

Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Chronic Users of Codeine-Containing Cough Syrups: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Codeine-containing cough syrups have become one of the most popular drugs of abuse in young people in the world. Chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse is related to impairments in a broad range of cognitive functions. However, the potential brain white matter impairment caused by chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse has not been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate abnormalities in the microstructure of brain white matter in chronic users of codeine-containing syrups and to determine whether these WM abnormalities are related to the duration of the use these syrups and clinical impulsivity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty chronic codeine-containing syrup users and 30 matched controls were evaluated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed by using a single-shot spin-echo-planar sequence. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy was performed by using tract-based spatial statistics to localize abnormal WM regions. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 was surveyed to assess participants’ impulsivity. Volume-of-interest analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in regions with fractional anisotropy abnormalities. Abnormal fractional anisotropy was extracted and correlated with clinical impulsivity and the duration of codeine-containing syrup use.

RESULTS: Chronic codeine-containing syrup users had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus of the bilateral temporo-occipital regions, right frontal region, and the right corona radiata WM than controls. There were significant negative correlations among fractional anisotropy values of the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right superior corona radiata WM and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total scores, and between the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and nonplan impulsivity scores in chronic codeine-containing syrup users. There was also a significant negative correlation between fractional anisotropy values of the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the duration of codeine-containing syrup use in chronic users.

CONCLUSIONS: Chronic codeine-containing syrup abuse may be associated with disruptions in brain WM integrity. These WM microstructural deficits may be linked to higher impulsivity in chronic codeine-containing syrup users.

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