immunostaining

Stress Granules
Microphotography by ~lady-alessandra

Stress granules are ribonucleoprotein structures that form in cell cytoplasm under stress conditions.

Their function is still not completely clear, but it is known that stress response due to sublethal harsh conditions prevents cell death caused by otherwise lethal stimuli applied later. Whether the formation of granules is essential for this protective effect is not known.

Here we treated U2OS [osteosarcoma] cells with arsenite and stopped the noxious stimulus at different times.

  • Then we immunostained with antibodies against eIF2alpha, which is known to accumulate in stress granules (green),
  • red fluorescent phalloidin (which binds to actin filaments, allowing to see cell shape)
  • and DAPI (a blue stain which binds DNA).

You can see how eIF2alpha is widespread in the cytoplasm under basal conditions, being recruited to stress granules when the cell is under harsh conditions.

Bipolar Cells of the Mouse Retina

In the retina, bipolar cells are situated between photoreceptors and ganglion cells. They act, directly or indirectly (via amacrine cells), to transmit signals from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Each bipolar cell can synapse with either rods or cones, but not both (hence the name “bipolar”). There are ten distinct types of cone bipolar cells in the mammalian retina, and only one type of rod bipolar cell (stained red in the image above).

Bipolar cells can be further classified as “ON” or “OFF” based on how they react to changes in the release of glutamate by photoreceptors. When light hits a photoreceptor cell, the photoreceptor hyperpolarizes and releases less glutamate. ON bipolar cells (stained blue in the image above) will respond to this change by depolarizing and OFF bipolar cells will respond by hyperpolarizing.

Image by Luca Della Santina, courtesy of Rachel Wong, University of Washington.

Drosophila melanogaster (stage 16 embryo)
Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, via ZEISS Microscopy on Flickr.

Ventral view of stage 16 Drosophila melanogaster embryo

Immunostained for Tropomyosin (green; muscle), Pax 3/7 (blue; segmentally repeated nuclei in CNS and ectoderm), and anti-HRP (red; cell bodies and axons of the nervous system). All nuclei shown in gray (DAPI). Imaged with ZEISS LSM 700.

Cross section of the retina from a 5-day-old zebrafish expressing fluorescent protein and immunostained for major retinal cell types. Can you identify the retinal cell types?

Image by Philip Williams, courtesy of Rachel Wong, University of Washington.

Cnidaria, MultiView Light Sheet Microscopy (3 of 4) by ZEISS Microscopy on Flickr.

Immunostaining of planktonic Cnidaria. Acetylated tubulin (green), myosin (red), nuclei (blue). Image taken with ZEISS Lightsheet Z.1 during the EMBO course on Marine Animal Models in Evolution & Development, Sweden 2013. www.zeiss.com/lightsheet Sample courtesy of Helena Parra, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona.

Pharmaceutical Research Silencing the DoubleStranded #RNA Binding Protein DGCR8 Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation Migration and Invasion

Type Original PaperPurposeTo evaluate the role of DiGeorge Critical Region 8 DGCR8 a key component of #miRNA biogenesis pathway in ovarian #cancer.MethodsThe expression of DGCR8 in ovarian #cancer was detected by immunostaining and DGCR8 knockdown in ovarian … http://bit.ly/1GB9rtI #bioportfolio

The role of SOX11 immunostaining in confirming the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma on fine-needle aspiration samples.

The role of SOX11 immunostaining in confirming the diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma on fine-needle aspiration samples.

Cancer Cytopathol. 2014 Dec;122(12):892-7

Authors: Zhang YH, Liu J, Dawlett M, Guo M, Sun X, Gong Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) demonstrates cytologic features that overlap with those of other types of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-cell NHLs) containing small to medium-sized cells. The accurate diagnosis of MCL is important because MCL has relatively more aggressive biologic behavior and thus requires specific treatment regimens. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is used for diagnosing or staging lymphoma, often with the help of immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. However, the cellularity of an FNA sample may not be high enough for flow cytometry, leading to diagnostic difficulty. SOX11 immunostaining is helpful in the diagnosis of MCL in histologic sections. However, to the authors’ knowledge, its diagnostic value for FNA samples has not been studied to date.
METHODS: Immunostains for SOX11 were performed on 69 FNA cases with final diagnoses of MCL (13 cases, including 10 classic type and 3 blastoid variant), marginal zone lymphoma (8 cases), follicular lymphoma (10 cases), small lymphocytic lymphoma (12 cases), Burkitt lymphoma (9 cases), plasma cell myeloma (7 cases), and benign lymph nodes (10 cases). Preparation types included cytospin slides (65 cases), direct smears (2 cases), and cell block sections (2 cases). The percentage of positive cells (defined as nuclear staining) and staining intensity were recorded.
RESULTS: All 13 cases of MCL were positive for SOX11 staining, with 12 cases demonstrating diffuse positivity. All other types of B-cell NHL cases, plasma cell myelomas, and benign lymph nodes were found to have negative results. Weak staining was found in 1 MCL case of blastoid variant.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX11 immunostaining on FNA samples is highly sensitive and specific for MCL and can be used as a reliable adjunct to confirm MCL, especially in a recurrent setting.

PMID: 25056830 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



via pubmed: cllsllupdate1 http://ift.tt/1rh0C0f
TCL1 expression predicts overall survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

TCL1 expression predicts overall survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

Eur J Haematol. 2015 Feb 17;

Authors: Shin SJ, Roh J, Cha HJ, Choi YD, Kim JM, Min SK, Kim JE, Eom DW, Lee H, Kim HJ, Yoon DH, Suh C, Huh J

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. Although most cases show a poor prognosis, a minority has an indolent course. It is difficult to identify indolent MCL cases prospectively. T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1 (TCL1) is expressed by several B cell lymphomas, including MCL. The present study examined the expression of TCL1 and its prognostic relevance for MCL.
METHODS: Clinical data for162 MCL patients were collected. Of these, 144 cases with available tissues for tissue microarray construction and immunostaining were included in the analysis. TCL1 staining was quantified using the Nuclear Quant application with Pannoramic(™) Viewer v. 1.14. High TCL1 expression was defined as moderate to strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining in 40% or more of the cells.
RESULTS: High TCL1 expression was observed in 39/144 samples (27.1%). Patients with low TCL1 expression were more likely to present with blastoid/pleomorphic morphology (p=0.010). Low TCL1 expression was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (OS, p =0.006). Multivariate analysis identified low TCL1 expression (p=0.003), high-risk MIPI (p=0.027) and anemia (p=0.018) as adverse prognostic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that TCL1 expression profile may have a role in the prediction of overall outcome in MCL patient, and call for prospective studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25688912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



via pubmed: lymphoma daily http://ift.tt/1EOS1sb