immunoblot

Identification of Target Antigens of Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

PubMed: Identification of Target Antigens of Naturally Occurring Autoantibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

J Proteomics. 2015 May 12;

Authors: Kimura A, Yoshikura N, Koumura A, Hayashi Y, Kobayashi Y, Kobayashi I, Yano T, Inuzuka T

Abstract
Naturally occurring autoantibodies have natural physiologic functions related to normal cell processes. However, the repertoire of naturally occurring autoantibodies against neuronal antigens in CSF is unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify naturally occurring autoantibodies against neuronal antigens in CSF from patients with various neurologic diseases by proteomics-based analysis. The CSF samples were collected from 77 patients with various neurologic disorders. The antigen source for 2-dimensional immunoblotting was the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. There were 8 spots recognized in CSF from more than one-fourth of the 77 patients including all patient groups and these spots were recognized in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. These antigen spots were identified as heat shock 105-kDa/110-kDa protein 1, isoform CRA_b, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, tubulin beta chain, vimentin (2 spots), and 60-kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; we could not identify the protein name corresponding to 1 of the 8 spots. In summary, there were 6 proteins identified that were main target antigens that reacted with naturally occurring autoantibodies in CSF from patients with varied neurologic disorders; the functions of autoantibodies against the identified antigens are unknown and may be clarified with further studies.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Naturally occurring autoantibodies may have important functions in tissue homeostasis. In this study, we identified 6 common target antigens that reacted with autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients, independent of disease type. These findings may clarify the importance of naturally occurring autoantibodies in CSF and the use of these antibodies potentially may be a novel therapy for various neurologic disorders.

PMID: 25979775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] http://dlvr.it/9rj8Rj

Aberrant Epstein-Barr virus antibody patterns and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a Spanish multicentric case-control study.

Aberrant Epstein-Barr virus antibody patterns and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a Spanish multicentric case-control study.

Infect Agent Cancer. 2015;10:5

Authors: Casabonne D, Benavente Y, Robles C, Costas L, Alonso E, Gonzalez-Barca E, Tardón A, Dierssen-Sotos T, Vázquez EG, Aymerich M, Campo E, Castaño-Vinyals G, Aragones N, Pollan M, Kogevinas M, Juwana H, Middeldorp J, de Sanjose S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancies harbour distinct serological responses to EBV antigens. We hypothesized that EBV serological patterns can be useful to identify different stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
METHODS: Information on 150 cases with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 157 frequency-matched (by age, sex and region) population-based controls from a Spanish multicentre case-control study was obtained. EBV immunoglobulin G serostatus was evaluated through a peptide-based ELISA and further by immunoblot analysis to EBV early antigens (EA), nuclear antigen (EBNA1), VCA-p18, VCA-p40 and Zebra. Two independent individuals categorized the serological patterns of the western blot analysis. Patients with very high response and diversity in EBV-specific polypeptides, in particular with clear responses to EA-associated proteins, were categorized as having an abnormal reactive pattern (ab_EBV). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Almost all subjects were EBV-IgG positive (>95% of cases and controls) whereas ab_EBV patterns were detected in 23% of cases (N = 34) and 11% of controls (N = 17; OR: 2.44, 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P = 0.006), particularly in intermediate/high risk patients. Although based on small numbers, the association was modified by smoking with a gradual reduction of ab_EBV-related OR for all Rai stages from never smokers to current smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Highly distinct EBV antibody diversity patterns revealed by immunoblot analysis were detected in cases compared to controls, detectable at very early stages of the disease and particularly among non smokers. This study provides further evidence of an abnormal immunological response against EBV in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

PMID: 25972916 [PubMed]



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High p27 protein levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated to low Myc and Skp2 expression, confer resistance to apoptosis and antagonize Myc effects on cell cycle.

High p27 protein levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated to low Myc and Skp2 expression, confer resistance to apoptosis and antagonize Myc effects on cell cycle.

Oncotarget. 2014 Jul 15;5(13):4694-708

Authors: Caraballo JM, Acosta JC, Cortés MA, Albajar M, Gómez-Casares MT, Batlle-López A, Cuadrado MA, Onaindia A, Bretones G, Llorca J, Piris MA, Colomer D, León J

Abstract
Myc (c-Myc) counteracts p27 effects, and low p27 usually correlates with high Myc expression in human cancer. However there is no information on the co-expression of both genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found a lack of correlation between RNA and protein levels of p27 and Myc in CLL cells, so we determined the protein levels by immunoblot in 107 cases of CLL. We observed a high p27 protein expression in CLL compared to normal B cells. Ectopic p27 expression in a CLL-derived cell line resulted in cell death resistance. Surprisingly, Myc expression was very low or undetectable in most CLL cases analyzed, with a clear correlation between high p27 and low Myc protein levels. This was associated with low Skp2 expression, which is consistent with the Skp2 role in p27 degradation and with SKP2 being a Myc target gene. High Myc expression did not correlate with leukemia progression, despite that cell cycle-related Myc target genes were upregulated. However, biochemical analysis showed that the high p27 levels inhibited cyclin-Cdk complexes even in Myc expressing CLL cells. Our data suggest that the combination of high p27 and low Myc is a marker of CLL cells which is mediated by Skp2.

PMID: 25051361 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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DNA Damage Signaling Is Induced in the Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic DNA Replication and in Response to Expression of ZEBRA.

DNA Damage Signaling Is Induced in the Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic DNA Replication and in Response to Expression of ZEBRA.

PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126088

Authors: Wang'ondu R, Teal S, Park R, Heston L, Delecluse H, Miller G

Abstract
Epstein Barr virus (EBV), like other oncogenic viruses, modulates the activity of cellular DNA damage responses (DDR) during its life cycle. Our aim was to characterize the role of early lytic proteins and viral lytic DNA replication in activation of DNA damage signaling during the EBV lytic cycle. Our data challenge the prevalent hypothesis that activation of DDR pathways during the EBV lytic cycle occurs solely in response to large amounts of exogenous double stranded DNA products generated during lytic viral DNA replication. In immunofluorescence or immunoblot assays, DDR activation markers, specifically phosphorylated ATM (pATM), H2AX (γH2AX), or 53BP1 (p53BP1), were induced in the presence or absence of viral DNA amplification or replication compartments during the EBV lytic cycle. In assays with an ATM inhibitor and DNA damaging reagents in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, γH2AX induction was necessary for optimal expression of early EBV genes, but not sufficient for lytic reactivation. Studies in lytically reactivated EBV-positive cells in which early EBV proteins, BGLF4, BGLF5, or BALF2, were not expressed showed that these proteins were not necessary for DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle. Expression of ZEBRA, a viral protein that is necessary for EBV entry into the lytic phase, induced pATM foci and γH2AX independent of other EBV gene products. ZEBRA mutants deficient in DNA binding, Z(R183E) and Z(S186E), did not induce foci of pATM. ZEBRA co-localized with HP1β, a heterochromatin associated protein involved in DNA damage signaling. We propose a model of DDR activation during the EBV lytic cycle in which ZEBRA induces ATM kinase phosphorylation, in a DNA binding dependent manner, to modulate gene expression. ATM and H2AX phosphorylation induced prior to EBV replication may be critical for creating a microenvironment of viral and cellular gene expression that enables lytic cycle progression.

PMID: 25950714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Combining CAL-101 with Celecoxib Enhances Apoptosis of EBV-transformed B-Cells Through MAPK-induced ER Stress.

Combining CAL-101 with Celecoxib Enhances Apoptosis of EBV-transformed B-Cells Through MAPK-induced ER Stress.

Anticancer Res. 2015 May;35(5):2699-708

Authors: Park GB, Hur DY, Kim D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition attenuates proliferation and survival in B-cell malignancies. Celecoxib induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis via a cyclo-oxgenase-2 (COX2)-independent manner in certain types of cancer cells. In the present study, we assessed the effects of combinations of drugs with a p110δ-specific inhibitor, CAL-101, and celecoxib to induce apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cells and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The apoptotic effect of combination treatment with CAL-101 and celecoxib on B-cell malignancies was determined by flow cytometry and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Exposure to CAL-101 and celecoxib significantly increased apoptosis, which was accompanied by the inactivation of AKT, Ras homolog gene family, member A (RHOA), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), and ROCK2 as well as up-regulation of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Co-treatment with CAL-101 and celecoxib triggered the ER stress response and the down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. SB203580, SP600125, and salubrinal effectively inhibited apoptosis and attenuated expression of phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Levels of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) were also increased after treatment with CAL-101 and celecoxib.
CONCLUSION: The apoptosis of EBV-transformed B-cells and NHL cells caused by CAL-101 and celecoxib might be related to inhibiting the RHOA/ROCK pathway and might also be associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated ER stress.

PMID: 25964548 [PubMed - in process]



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