Gold spiral 

This gold spiral has a double lion or griffin-headed terminal. It is relatively small considering the small details : 3.5 cm high and 1.7 cm wide ( 1 3/8 x 11/16 inch.) 

Greek, Cypriot culture, Classical Period, 4th century BC. 

Source: Metropolitan Museum 


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Ciumeşti Helmet
Manufactured in the 4th century BC, But found in the a 3rd century B.C. Chieftain’s Tomb; Ciumesti, Romania (35 Celtic graves were discovered). Now located in Bucharest’s, Muzeul National de Istorie.

The cap of the Helmet
“The cap of the helmet is made of iron and was roughly caste, which gives it avery interesting appearance in the presence of light. There are several raisedcircular areas around the helmet in the middle and along the rim that arealmost spiral.”

The rear of the Helmet
“A small rear flap adorns the back third of the helmet. The body of the helmet comes together to a point that is attached to a small round perch that the bronze bird of prey clutches to. The legs are smooth, and gradually widen into the belly.”

The Bird
"One of the most interesting pieces in Celtic art is this helmet that is mounted, like a perch by a bird of prey whose wings actually flap when met by wind.”

“The entire body of the bird is pressed into a design that resembles a turtle shell. On each side are hinges that attach the wings, which are long smooth pieces of bronze with blue enameled tips. The tail is also composed of similar bronze sheets.”

The head is a small round shape and is characterized by walnut-shaped, red enamel eyes and a blue enameled beak that resembles a two piece crystal. This helmet was found in what is believed to be the funerary tomb of a Celtic chieftain. Though it was found in a funerary context, helmets such as this one were actually used in combat.”

Historian, Diodorus Siculus, writes:
"On their heads they wear bronze helmets which possess projecting figures lending the appearance of enormous stature to the wearer. In some cases, horns form one piece with the helmet while in other cases it is the relief figures or the foreparts of birds or quadrupeds.” - The Library of History, Book 5 (30: 2)*.html

Celtic Expansion

Note that where the Eastern Celts lie on the map is the area where the Ciumesti Helmet was found. (The Carpathian mountains and the basin to its west bordering Romania and Hungary)

While in the Pannonian Basin they found fertile land, numerous rivers and mines. The perfect place for them to settle, expand and launch raids from. 

Celtic invasion of the Balkans 3rd cent BC.

It wasn’t until Alexander the Great’s death that they began to seriously make attempts to invaded the Balkans. They led incursions against Illyria, Dardania, Paeonia, the Triballi, Thrace, Macedon, Greece and even assaulting the sacred city of Delphi.

Brennus sacking Delphi

The invasion had mixed results; some chose to remain in the Pannonian Basin, while others migrated to Gaul. Some of these Celts established a kingdom centered on the city of Tylis in Thrace, others migrated to Anatolia (Turkey) and established the Kingdom of Galatia.


Left: Greek Greaves / Right: Chainmail and Bronze disk

It is likely that the greaves which were found alongside the helmet were Greek, and the fact that they also found Greek wine vessels and Greek coins points towards the possibility that the chieftain led an army of mercenaries who were hired by the Greeks. Measurements suggest that the chieftain who wore these had a height of between 5’9 and 6’2.

“Manufacture of such greaves logically requires the exact measurement of the warrior’s legs. Two golden greaves from the so-called Philip II grave at Vergina, which are of different sizes and designed for a crippled man, are a significant example (Andronicos 1984:186-189).

It therefore appears that the Ciumeşti warrior had these made at a Greek workshop in the Mediterranean area, which is only possible if the warrior was himself present there (Rustoiu op. cit).

Celtic mercenary activity in Hellenistic armies in Greece and Asia-Minor is
recorded throughout the 3rd c. BC, and we can conclude with a great degree of certainty that the Transylvanian chieftain was the leader of one such Celtic mercenary force.”

The interior of the Gundestrup cauldron (discovered in Denmark) depicts a horsemen wearing a helmet similar to the Ciumesti Helmet.

More Examples:

From: Osprey Publishing’s, “Rome’s Enemies - Gallic and British Celts”

Above Picture from Patrick M: [ROMANIAN] [ROMANIAN]

Main Post photo, on the right by Pat Leppan

Total War: Rome 2 - Oathsworn hi|


The archaeological site of Acropolis/ Propylaia and the temple of Athena Nike:

The monumental Propylaia admired by modern visitors were part of the great Periklean building program. They were erected in 437-432 BC, after the completion of the Parthenon, by architect Mnesikles. The original building plan was particularly daring both in architectural and artistic terms, but was never completed. The north wing of the Propylaia is described by Pausanias (1, 22, 6) as the Pinakotheke, an art gallery with paintings by famous artists, such as Polygnotos and Aglaophon.

The temple of Athena Nike stands at the southeast edge of the sacred rock atop a bastion, which in Mycenaean times protected the entrance to the Acropolis. The Classical temple, designed by architect Kallikrates and built in 426-421 BC, succeeded earlier temples also dedicated to Athena Nike. The first one of these, a mid-sixth century BC wooden temple was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC.

The temple is a small Ionic amphiprostyle structure with four monolithic columns on either short side. The side walls of the cella end in antae, which flank a pair of pillars. Metal railings placed between the antae and the pillars and the antae and the side columns created a sort of small pronaos. Above the epistyle, a frieze by sculptor Agorakritos depicted battle scenes between the Greeks and Persians on three sides and, on the east side, an assembly of the Olympian gods watching these battles. Little is preserved of the pediments, which are believed to have depicted a Gigantomachy on the western side and an Amazonomachy on the eastern side. Outside the temple, to its east, was the altar. A marble parapet was built in 409 BC along the edge of the bastion for safety reasons. It consists of relief slabs, one metre high, with representations of winged Victories leading bulls to be sacrificed or sacrificing them or decorating trophies before the seated Athena. Several slabs and parts of the frieze can be seen in the Acropolis Museum; other parts of the frieze are in the British Museum.

In Christian times both the south wing and the central section of the Propylaia were converted into churches, the former during the Early Christian period (fourth-seventh centuries AD) and the latter in the tenth century AD when in was dedicated to the Taxiarches. Under Frankish rule (thirteenth-fourteenth centuries AD) the Propylaia became the residence of the dukes of de la Roche; during the same period a tower, known as Koulas, now demolished, was built against the south wing. In the Ottoman period (1458-1830) the Propylaia were used as garrison headquarters and munitions store, resulting in a great explosion that destroyed the building in 1640. After the Greek War of Independence the Medieval and Turkish additions to the Propylaia were demolished and the site excavated. Restoration work was undertaken by engineer Nikolaos Balanos in 1909-1917 and is again in progress since 1982, as part of the greater conservation and restoration project carried out on the Acropolis since 1975 by the Restoration Service of the Monuments of the Acropolis in collaboration with the First Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, under the supervision of the Committee for the Conservation of the Monuments of the Acropolis.

Texts by Ioanna Venieri

Rare bronze mask of god Pan found at Golan dig

An extremely rare bronze mask of the ancient Greek deity Pan has been unearthed in an excavation at the Sussita archaeological site on the Golan Heights.

The mask, which dates back to the Hellenistic period, is larger than a human head and is made of bronze. It is extremely rare, because most ancient bronze statues and masks were melted down in later periods.

“Rituals to worship the gods of pasture and the fields, particularly Dionysus, were held fairly often outside the city,” Eisenberg explained. “They included ceremonies that involved drinking, sacrifice and ecstatic worship that sometimes involved nudity and sex. That may be one of the reasons why it was preferred that the participants hold the ceremony outside the city walls.”

Image: Dr. Michael Eisenberg holding up the bronze mask of Pan. 

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Ειμαστε ομορφες, εχουμε τις κατακτησεις μας.. μας αρεσει το φλερτ ναι μας κολακευει και δεν ειναι κακο να σε φλερταρουν.. Ας μη ξεχναμε τα ορια μας ομως.. Γιατι το χειροτερο σε μια γυναικα ειναι να προσπαθει να “δειχνει” την εξωτερικη της ομορφια με τετοιο τροπο ωστε να ζηταει την επιβεβαιωση.. Αυτο λεγεται ανασφαλεια, οχι ομορφια.