Iron fertilisation to mitigate climate change?

These light blue smoke-like plumes are phytoplankton in bloom off the coast of Argentina in the South Atlantic Ocean. Phytoplankton plays an important role in iron fertilisation, one of several proposed methods of mitigating climate change known as geoengineering. Geoengineering is the deliberate and extensive intervention in the Earth’s geochemical or biogeochemical cycles with the intent to mitigate climate change.

In recent years, understanding of climate change has become widespread in mainstream media. As a result, many mitigation and adaption methods have also been widely publicised along with some interesting, and sometimes frightening, geoengineering proposals. One idea of reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was suggested by oceanographer John Martin. Martin’s iron hypothesis suggested that fertilising the sea with iron could slow global warming by increasing phytoplankton photosynthesis.

It sounds quite simple; at the ocean’s surface atmospheric CO2 is dissolved in sea water. Phytoplankton then absorbs carbon dioxide by photosynthesis turning it into insoluble organic carbon. When phytoplankton dies, dead organic matter sinks to the ocean floor where it gets buried into the geological record and is trapped for aeons. Iron is a trace element all plants need for photosynthesis, hence, by adding iron, phytoplankton blooms can be increased leading in turn to more CO2 being removed.

But is it really that simple? Are iron infusions and boosted phytoplankton activity like this harmful to other organisms? How much added iron is enough and how much is too much? Several studies have examined the effect of spreading finely powdered iron into the surface waters, but very little is known about the side effects. Critics point out that adding iron to the sea could as well favour species that negatively impact other organisms. Other concerns are runaway chemical changes in the surrounding ocean and unforeseeable impacts on marine ecosystems.

Besides, the efficiency of this method is uncertain. It only works if the carbon is actually buried and is not released back into the atmosphere as it could be the case when Phytoplankton is eaten by animals, because their metabolism sends CO2 back into the atmosphere by respiration. So CO2 trapping cannot be guaranteed, as the carbon cycle is not the same for every area and therefore an unpredictable component. Moreover, in many areas growth of phytoplankton is not limited by a lack of iron, thus only certain areas would bloom if iron was added.

Iron fertilisation is still discussed today; the most recent investigations carried out in July 2012 in the North Pacific by the Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation (HSRC) resulted in increased algae growth over 10,000 square miles. The project was controversially discussed as responsible entrepreneur Russ George was accused of having carried out these experiments without permission.

Another important aspect comes alongside geoengineering activities like this in general; ethics. Do we have the right to interfere with sensitive natural processes like this? If yes, where is the limit and who decides how it is done? If no, how do we intend to reduce emissions in a way it really makes a difference?


Image Credit:

Martin, J. H. and Fitzwater, S. E. (1988) Iron-deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the Northeast Pacific Subarctic. Nature 331, 341-343.


NASA Expert: Chemtrails are Real and Rogue Geoengineers Could Blackmail the Earth

Droughts, famine, chemtrails and the global game of risk: geoengineering is real, and inevitable part of the future, when science tries to orchestrate nature in the name of taming climate change, while experts argue over who will make the rules in the global governance of weather modification and geoengineering. Could a rogue billionaire tinker with the delicate balance of our Earth? Might a mad scientist even “weaponize” weather control to wield power over the planet? Everything is possible, warns a NASA Jet Propulsion Labs expert. Chemtrails and geoengineering are no longer the things of conspiratorial speculation or retro science fiction — they are the scenarios shaping the world to come as science contemplates how far is too far for man to go in the name of a global environmental crisis?

Watch the entire NASA JPL presentation here:

Chemtrails? Watch This! Then Try to Deny It

NASA Admits To Chemtrails As They Propose Spraying Stratospheric Aerosols Into Earths Atmosphere

Scientists: “Exclusive Club” To Assume Command Of Global Geoengineering…

CIA co-sponsoring geoengineering study to look at reversing global warming options

Scientists: “Exclusive Club” To Assume Command Of Global Geoengineering

Unilateral Geoengineering Non-technical Briefing Notes for a Workshop - At the Council on Foreign Relations Washington DC, May 05, 2008

World’s biggest geoengineering experiment ‘violates’ UN rules
Government Response to the House of Commons
Science and Technology Committee 5
Report of Session 2009-10:
The Regulation of Geoengineering

Strategic incentives for climate
geoengineering coalitions to exclude
broad participation

Scientists: “Exclusive Club” To Assume Command Of Global Geoengineering

Regarding the JPL video … This is like listening to Charles Manson telling you someone could stab Sharon Tate to death (after he’s had Sharon Tate stabbed to death) and that we need to do something about it so that “some crazy guy” doesn’t stab Sharon Tate to death.

In other words, these people are fucking insane!

That these tiny creatures could affect such massive change is not as unreasonable as it sounds. Much of the oxygen we breathe comes from just one species of cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus. This species was not even discovered until the 1980s: it is so tiny that millions can fit into a single drop of water and no one had produced a sieve small enough to catch it. The oxygen made by these tiny marine plants dwarfs that produced by the Amazon rainforest and the rest of the world’s woodlands combined. By taking in CO2 and exhaling oxygen, these tiny creatures serve as the planet’s lungs, whose steady breathing is limited only by nutrition. Just as land plants need nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements to thrive, missing nutrients restrain planktons’ growth. Add enough of those missing elements – via dust blown off a continent or fertiliser run-off from farm fields – and the oceans will produce blooms that can be seen from space.

Using Naturally Occurring Olivine to Sequester Carbon Emissions

Based on Nature News & Comment Nature 505, 464 (23 January 2014)

'Weathering’, or breaking down, of rocks is a hugely important but very slow part of the carbon cycle. Natural weathering locks up atmospheric carbon dioxide by means of chemical reactions between common silicate minerals and air.

For example, when magnesium-rich olivine, a rock of particular interest to geoengineers, is brought together with CO2 and water under natural conditions, the resulting reaction forms magnesium carbonate and silicic acid, thereby removing and storing carbon.

Some scientists think that this natural process could be exploited to offset at least some of the carbon emitted by human activities. Rather than waiting for rocks to be slowly weathered away, olivine could be mined on an industrial scale, ground up, and spread over land or in the sea, speeding up these chemical reactions and sucking vast quantities of CO2 out of the atmosphere.

One obvious way to try this is to do something nature already does. Make more green sand beaches!  Scatter the crushed olivine on beaches everywhere …

There are now only four natural olivine-sand beaches.

  • Papakolea Beach in Hawaii
  • Talofofo Beach, Guam
  • Punta Cormorant Beach in the Galapagos Islands
  • Hornindalsvatnet in Norway, the deepest lake in Europe.

Green sand gets its name from the green glassy crystals of olivine that make up a significant part of it. The olivine in the sand on these beaches comes from olivine-rich lava, as seen in the partially weathered lava in the TOP IMAGE.

Olivine is the most abundant mineral in the Earth’s mantle, down to about 410 km below the surface. It is a common component of lava.

Lab experimentation has shown that under pressures found 360 km below the surface of the earth, olivine can absorb a great deal of water.  Because olivine is so abundant, it may be that more water is dissolved in subsurface olivine than is contained in Earth’s oceans.

Olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg+2, Fe+2)2 SiO4. Check out olivine in Wikipedia 

Photo of Hawaii’s Papakolea Beach by Shannon Lucas 
Other images:
Nature and Wikimedia


Nice turnaround in our “weather!”  Our new Mayan orgonite pyramid, still in progress, has already banished the chemclouds!  This one is a powerhouse, containing a nice sized quartz and amethyst in the middle, super-fine brass shavings and a dash of nickel, two copper coils, and four small double terminated quartz crystals wrapped in copper wire.  We can breathe again in LA!  Hallelujah!


“Chemtrails” Timelapse the EPA Said Was So Abnormal It Must Be Fake! (73 Planes Before Breakfast)

On the one hand we are told everything is normal, therefore there is nothing to investigate. On the other hand, evidence that by their own admission is so abnormal to the extent that it can’t even be real(!), is dismissed as fake, therefore there is nothing to investigate.

U.N. to Consider Geoengineering

It’s Plan B in the fight against climate change: cooling the planet by sucking heat-trapping CO2 from the air or reflecting sunlight back into space.

Called geoengineering, it’s considered mad science by opponents. Supporters say it would be foolish to ignore it, since plan A — slashing carbon emissions from fossil fuels — is moving so slowly.

Read more: