Leslie with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1B Reaches out Fellow Patients, Researchers - Global Genes ™

My name is Leslie and I am 34-years-old with a rare genetic disorder called Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1b. This was proven by genetic testing at the Cleveland Clinic, but completed at a Johns Hopkins lab. I was diagnosed with it at age ten along with hypocalemia, but just recently had genetic testing at age 34 to confirm it because my symptoms have progressed. I don’t have any physical abnormalities visible to the eye. To a stranger I look fine, but I’m anything but.. I was also just diagnosed with Addison’s Disease in May of 2014. I was misdiagnosed with Lyme Disease, underwent heavy duty antibiotic treatment and followed a strict clean diet only to realize I didn’t have it. I have seen almost every kind of doctor you could think of, underwent extensive testing and brain MRI’s, full body scans, etc. I do not know what PHP 1b can do and I cannot find much as far as cases reported similar to mine. 

Watch on tricotomiacruenta.tumblr.com

Repo! The Genetic Opera

Legal Assassin

GHOSTLY WHISPERS:
Assassin… murderer… monster(etc)
Nathan(x6)

Nathan:
Where did our daughter go?
It’s me she must escape.
My burdens I can’t erase.
The mother I might have saved.

GHOSTLY WHISPERS:
Assassin… murderer… monster

Nathan:
Marni, I need you now.
Look what I’ve become.
The nightmare that she should fear
Is the father you left alo~ne! 

GHOSTLY WHISPERS:
Assassin… murderer… monster(x3)

Nathan:
The years roll by without you, Marni.
17 have come and gone.
I raised our Shilo with the best intentions.
But there is something I can’t tell her.
I am lost without you here! 
I am only living out a lie! 

Shilo can never leave.
She is my everything.
Nothing can bring you back.
Shilo is all I have! 

GHOSTLY WHISPERS:
Assassin… murderer… monster(x3)

Nathan:
The years roll by without you, Marni.
17 have come and gone.
I raised our Shilo with the best intentions.
But there is something I can’t tell her.
I am lost without you here! 
I am only living out a lie! 

GHOSTLY WHISPERS:
Assassin! Assassin! Assassin! 

Nathan/Repo Man:
I’m the monster! (Assassin! )
I’m the villain! (Assassin! )
What perfection! (Assassin! )
What precision! (Assassin! )
Keen incisions, I deliver! 
Unscathed organs, I deliver! 
Repossessions, I deliver! 
I’m the Repo, Legal Assassin!

Scientists Discover New Sleep Node in the Brain

Read the full article Scientists Discover New Sleep Node in the Brain at NeuroscienceNews.com.

Findings may lead to new therapies for sleep disorders, including insomnia.

The research is in Nature Neuroscience. (full access paywall)

Research: “The GABAergic parafacial zone is a medullary slow wave sleep–promoting center” by Christelle Anaclet, Loris Ferrari, Elda Arrigoni, Caroline E Bass, Clifford B Saper, Jun Lu and Patrick M Fuller in Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/nn.3789

Image: Using designer genes, researchers at UB and Harvard were able to ‘turn on’ specific neurons in the brainstem that result in deep sleep. Credit University at Buffalo.

Schizophrenia Is Actually Eight Distinct Genetic Disorders:

New research published in the American Journal of Psychiatry suggests that schizophrenia is not a single disease, but rather a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each of them with its own set of symptoms. The finding could result in improved diagnosis and treatment, while also shedding light on how genes work together to cause complex disorders.

Schizophrenia is classified as a psychotic disorder, one characterized by an inability to discern what is real and not real, to think clearly, have normal emotional responses, and act normally in social situations. As Elyn Saks told us last year, “it’s a waking nightmare, where you have all the bizarre images, the terrible things happening, and the utter terror — only with a nightmare you open your eyes and it goes away. No such luck with a psychotic episode.”

Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes it, nor does it manifest identically in all people who have it (leading to the broader diagnosis of being on the ‘schizophrenia spectrum’). But links have been made to genetics, social factors (including early development), and neurobiology. The heritability link looks to be particularly promising, however; about 80% of the risk for schizophrenia is genetic. Yet scientists have struggled to identify which genes are responsible for the condition.

But a novel approach to analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia has finally allowed researchers to identify distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia.

Evidence of Genetic Link to PTSD in Soldiers Exposed to Childhood Trauma

Read the full article Evidence of Genetic Link to PTSD in Soldiers Exposed to Childhood Trauma at NeuroscienceNews.com.

While abnormalities in the adrenergic and noradrenergic systems, both integral in the fight-or-flight response, are thought to play a role in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), until now there has been no genetic evidence of this connection. A collaborative study just released by researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health and the University of Michigan found an interaction between the ADRB2 gene and childhood adversity. For individuals with two or more experiences of childhood trauma, such as abuse, genotype was associated with risk for adult PTSD symptoms. These findings are significant for the study of the physiology of PTSD, for the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses, and may have implications for treating pain, which has also been linked to the ADRB2 gene.

The research is in JAMA Psychiatry. (full access paywall)

Research: “Interaction of the ADRB2 Gene Polymorphism With Childhood Trauma in Predicting Adult Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” by Israel Liberzon, MD; Anthony P. King, PhD; Kerry J. Ressler, MD, PhD; Lynn M. Almli, PhD; Peng Zhang, PhD; Sean T. Ma, PhD; Gregory H. Cohen, MPH; Marijo B. Tamburrino, MD; Joseph R. Calabrese, MD; and Sandro Galea, MD, MPH in JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.999

Image: Lifetime trauma exposure was also a strong predictor of PTSD symptoms, regardless of rs2400707 genotype. The image is for illustrative purposes only and shows a mask, painted by a U.S. Marine who attended art therapy to relieve PTSD symptoms. Credit Cpl. Andrew Johnston.

Untested GMO bananas to move directly to human experimentation

Human trials with a new genetically modified (GM) banana with artificial levels of the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene are set to begin this fall without prior animal testing. Researchers plan to feed the “frankenfruit” to college students attending Iowa State University (ISU), though details outlining how the study will be conducted and whether or not students will know what they are eating have been limited.

The Des Moines Register (DMR) reports that 12 female students out of 500 who responded to a call for volunteers will be selected in the next few months to eat the GM banana for four days during three separate study periods. Each participant will receive $900 in compensation for her participation, the outcome of which is entirely unknown, as the GM banana in question has never before been tested on a living organism, let alone a human being.

A project of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the GM banana is intended for cultivation and use in poor African countries, where vitamin A deficiency is widespread. Like the infamous GM “Golden Rice,” which has failed in every trial thus far conducted, the novel GM banana is being offered up as the solution to vitamin A deficiency, even though there are plenty of other natural fruits and vegetables like mangoes and sweet potatoes that already contain high levels of beta-carotene.

Why won’t Gates’ scientists test GM banana on animals first?

Besides the controversial nature of the project itself — foods genetically modified to contain added nutrients have repeatedly been shown to harm humans — many are wondering why animal trials are not being conducted on the new GM banana. European regulations require that any proposed new GMO first be tested on animals for at least 90 days, but in this case scientists are rushing it straight to humans.

This amounts to gross experimentation on humans, cut from the same fabric as Nazi scientists who during World War II performed heinous medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners. It is impossible for those participating in such a trial to give informed consent because they have no idea what they’re consenting to — and neither do the scientists who will be performing the experiments!

"Going straight from GMO development to human trials is exactly what happened with the GM golden rice trials, where GM golden rice was fed to children without informed consent and without prior animal testing,” wrote Claire Robinson for GMWatch.eu. “The lack of animal testing was condemned by international scientists as a breach of the Nuremberg Code, established after World War II to prevent a repeat of Nazi experiments on humans.”

Natural bananas with high amounts of beta-carotene already exist

When confronted with the fact that beta-carotene-rich bananas already exist in nature, scientists backing the GM banana project humorously tried to claim that people living in East Africa probably wouldn’t eat them because, get this — they’re too sweet for their tastes. Thus, it is essential that Bill Gates & Co. swoop in and save the day with a man-made banana that could end up killing the target population in the end.

Such lunacy is what drives the genetic scientists pushing this type of nonsense on the world, when something as simple as inexpensive vitamin A supplements would be more than adequate at addressing deficiency in the Third World. Either that, or teaching people in these countries to grow foods that are naturally rich in beta-carotene and other carotenoid precursors to vitamin A.

"Like Golden Rice, these wannabe super heroes from the West will fail with their silver bullet for what is a complex societal & ecological problem," wrote one DMR commenter. "The first step to helping these kids would be to stop dumping our surplus corn into their economy at below the cost of production."

"Diversity in agriculture is the answer to the dietary problems afar and in our own [country]. Doubling down, with fingers crossed, on biotech silver bullets will not help… and if history is any indicator, we’ll probably just make it worse."



Sources for this article include:

http://www.gmwatch.eu

http://www.desmoinesregister.com

http://www.independentsciencenews.org

http://science.naturalnews.com


Schizophrenia not a single disease but multiple genetically distinct disorders

New research shows that schizophrenia isn’t a single disease but a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each with its own set of symptoms. The finding could be a first step toward improved diagnosis and treatment for the debilitating psychiatric illness.

image

The research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis is reported online Sept. 15 in The American Journal of Psychiatry.

About 80 percent of the risk for schizophrenia is known to be inherited, but scientists have struggled to identify specific genes for the condition. Now, in a novel approach analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia, the research team has identified distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia.

“Genes don’t operate by themselves,” said C. Robert Cloninger, MD, PhD, one of the study’s senior investigators. “They function in concert much like an orchestra, and to understand how they’re working, you have to know not just who the members of the orchestra are but how they interact.”

Cloninger, the Wallace Renard Professor of Psychiatry and Genetics, and his colleagues matched precise DNA variations in people with and without schizophrenia to symptoms in individual patients. In all, the researchers analyzed nearly 700,000 sites within the genome where a single unit of DNA is changed, often referred to as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). They looked at SNPs in 4,200 people with schizophrenia and 3,800 healthy controls, learning how individual genetic variations interacted with each other to produce the illness.

In some patients with hallucinations or delusions, for example, the researchers matched distinct genetic features to patients’ symptoms, demonstrating that specific genetic variations interacted to create a 95 percent certainty of schizophrenia. In another group, they found that disorganized speech and behavior were specifically associated with a set of DNA variations that carried a 100 percent risk of schizophrenia.

“What we’ve done here, after a decade of frustration in the field of psychiatric genetics, is identify the way genes interact with each other, how the ‘orchestra’ is either harmonious and leads to health, or disorganized in ways that lead to distinct classes of schizophrenia,” Cloninger said. 

Although individual genes have only weak and inconsistent associations with schizophrenia, groups of interacting gene clusters create an extremely high and consistent risk of illness, on the order of 70 to 100 percent. That makes it almost impossible for people with those genetic variations to avoid the condition. In all, the researchers identified 42 clusters of genetic variations that dramatically increased the risk of schizophrenia.

“In the past, scientists had been looking for associations between individual genes and schizophrenia,” explained Dragan Svrakic, PhD, MD, a co-investigator and a professor of psychiatry at Washington University. “When one study would identify an association, no one else could replicate it. What was missing was the idea that these genes don’t act independently. They work in concert to disrupt the brain’s structure and function, and that results in the illness.”

Svrakic said it was only when the research team was able to organize the genetic variations and the patients’ symptoms into groups that they could see that particular clusters of DNA variations acted together to cause specific types of symptoms.

Then they divided patients according to the type and severity of their symptoms, such as different types of hallucinations or delusions, and other symptoms, such as lack of initiative, problems organizing thoughts or a lack of connection between emotions and thoughts. The results indicated that those symptom profiles describe eight qualitatively distinct disorders based on underlying genetic conditions.

The investigators also replicated their findings in two additional DNA databases of people with schizophrenia, an indicator that identifying the gene variations that are working together is a valid avenue to explore for improving diagnosis and treatment.

By identifying groups of genetic variations and matching them to symptoms in individual patients, it soon may be possible to target treatments to specific pathways that cause problems, according to co-investigator Igor Zwir, PhD, research associate in psychiatry at Washington University and associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Granada, Spain.

And Cloninger added it may be possible to use the same approach to better understand how genes work together to cause other common but complex disorders.

“People have been looking at genes to get a better handle on heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, and it’s been a real disappointment,” he said. “Most of the variability in the severity of disease has not been explained, but we were able to find that different sets of genetic variations were leading to distinct clinical syndromes. So I think this really could change the way people approach understanding the causes of complex diseases.”

'1. Corn - Corn has been modified to create its own insecticide. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has declared that tons of genetically modified corn has been introduced for human consumption. Monsanto has revealed that half of the US’s sweet corn farms are planted with genetically modified seed. Mice fed with GM corn were discovered to have smaller offspring and fertility problems.



2. Soy - Soy has also been genetically modified to resist herbicides. Soy products include soy flour, tofu, soy beverages, soybean oil and other products that may include pastries, baked products and edible oil. Hamsters fed with GM soy were unable to have offspring and suffered a high mortality rate.


3. Cotton - Like corn and soy, cotton has been designed to resist pesticides. It is considered food because its oil can be consumed.
Its introduction in Chinese agriculture has produced a chemical that kills cotton bollworm, reducing the incidences of pests not only in cotton crops but also in neighboring fields of soybeans and corn. Incidentally, thousands of Indian farmers suffered severe rashes upon exposure to BT cotton.

4. Papaya - The virus-resistant variety of papaya was commercially introduced in Hawaii in 1999. Transgenic papayas comprised three-fourths of the total Hawaiian papaya crop. Monsanto bestowed upon Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in Coimbatore technology for developing papaya resistant to the ringspot virus in India.



5. Rice - This staple food from South East Asia has now been genetically modified to contain a high amount of vitamin A. Allegedly, there are reports of rice varieties containing human genes to be grown in the US. The rice will create human proteins useful for dealing with infant diarrhea in the 3rd world. China Daily, an online journal, reported potential serious public health and environment problems with genetically modified rice considering its tendency to cause allergic reactions with the concurrent possibility of gene transfers.



6. Tomatoes - Tomatoes have now been genetically engineered for longer shelf life, preventing them from easily rotting and degrading. In a test conducted to determine the safety of GM tomatoes, some animal subjects died within a few weeks after consuming GM tomatoes.



7. Rapeseed - In Canada, this crop was renamed canola to differentiate it from non-edible rapeseed. Food stuff produced from rapeseed includes rapeseed oi (canola oil) l used to process cooking oil and margarine. Honey can also be produced from GM rapeseed. German food surveillance authorities discovered as much as a third of the total pollen present in Canadian honey may be from GM pollen. In fact, some honey products from Canada were also discovered to have pollen from GM rapeseed.



8. Dairy products - It has been discovered that 22 percent of cows in the U.S. were injected with recombinant (genetically modified) bovine growth hormone (rbGH). This Monsanto created hormone artificially forces cows to increase their milk production by 15 percent. Milk from cows treated with this milk inducing hormone contains increased levels of IGF-1 (insulin growth factors-1). Humans also have IGF-1 in their system. Scientists have expressed concerns that increased levels of IGF-1 in humans have been associated with colon and breast cancer.



9. Potatoes - Mice fed with potatoes engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Cry 1 were found to have toxins in their system. Despite claims to the contrary, this shows that Cry1 toxin was stable in the mouse gut. When the health risks were revealed, it sparked a debate.



10. Peas - Peas that have been genetically modified have been found to cause immune responses in mice and possibly even in humans. A gene from kidney beans was inserted into the peas creating a protein that functions as a pesticide.’

Text
Photo
Quote
Link
Chat
Audio
Video