New Tool Pinpoints Genetic Sources Of Disease

Scientists have shown a connection between the “map” of genes in the genome and the “map” of reversible chemical changes to DNA, the epigenome.  Their finding could help disease trackers find patterns in those overlays that could offer clues to the causes of and possible treatments for complex genetic conditions.

Ancient Girl’s Genes Link Earliest Americans, Modern Native Americans

The ancient remains of a teenage girl found in an underwater Mexican cave establish a definitive link between the earliest Americans and modern Native Americans, according to a new study released today in the journal Science.

The study was conducted by an international team of researchers from 13 institutions, including Deborah Bolnick, assistant professor of anthropology at The Univ. of Texas at Austin, who analyzed DNA from the remains simultaneously with independent researchers at Washington State Univ. and the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/05/ancient-girls-genes-link-earliest-americans-modern-native-americans

Researchers Identify Gene That Influences the Ability to Remember Faces

Read the full article Researchers Identify Gene That Influences the Ability to Remember Faces at NeuroscienceNews.com.

New findings suggest the oxytocin receptor, a gene known to influence mother-infant bonding and pair bonding in monogamous species, also plays a special role in the ability to remember faces. This research has important implications for disorders in which social information processing is disrupted, including autism spectrum disorder. In addition, the finding may lead to new strategies for improving social cognition in several psychiatric disorders.

A team of researchers from Yerkes National Primate Research Center at Emory University in Atlanta, the University College London in the United Kingdom and University of Tampere in Finland made the discovery.

The research is in PNAS. (full access paywall)

Research: “Common polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with human social recognition skills” by David H. Skuse, Adriana Lori, Joseph F. Cubells, Irene Lee, Karen N. Conneely, Kaija Puura, Terho Lehtimäki, Elisabeth B. Binder, and Larry J. Young in PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1302985111

Image: Researchers discover the ‘bonding gene’, oxytocin, also plays an important role in our ability to remember faces. The research could have vital implications for social information processing disorders such as autism. This illustrative image is a computer generated 3D representation of a female face. Credit Geierunited.

Birth of New Species Requires Very Few Genetic Changes

Only a few genetic changes are needed to spur the evolution of new species — even if the original populations are still in contact and exchanging genes. Once started, however, evolutionary divergence evolves rapidly, ultimately leading to fully genetically isolated species, report scientists from the Univ. of Chicago in Cell Reports.

“Speciation is one of the most fundamental evolutionary processes, but there are still aspects that we do not fully understand, such as how the genome changes as one species splits into two,” says Marcus Kronforst, Neubauer Family assistant professor of ecology and evolution, and lead author of the study.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2013/11/birth-new-species-requires-very-few-genetic-changes

Quantity, Not Quality: Too Much Protein Increases Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

Scientists have found that a particular genetic variant linked to sudden cardiac death leads to too much of the protein NOS1AP in heart cells. Interestingly, the variant is within so-called noncoding DNA. The discovery sheds light on the causes of sudden cardiac death and on possible ways to prevent it.

This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (grant numbers RO1 HL086694 and RO1HL105993) and the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation.

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