Sandstone rune raised in Turinge, Sweden, commemorating a warlord who died fighting in Kievan Rus’ (Ukraine).
1. “Ketill and Bjôrn raised this stone in memory of Thorstein, their father; Ônundr in memory of his brother and the soldiers in memory of the just(?) (and) Ketiley in memory of her farmers. These brothers were the best of men in the land, and abroad in the war band, held their troops well”.
2. “He fell in battle in the east in Russia, commander of the war band, best of landholders”.
Old Norse transcription:
1. Kætill ok Biorn þæiR ræistu stæin þenna at Þorstæin, faður sinn, Anundr at broður sinn ok huskarlaR æftiR(?) iafna, Kætiløy at boanda sinn. Brøðr vaRu þæiR bæstra manna, a landi ok i liði uti, heldu sina huskarla ve[l].
2. Hann fioll i orrustu austr i Garðum, liðs forungi, landmanna bæstr.
Viking Era helmet found in the Gjermundbu burial mound in Haugsbygd, Norway.
Contrary to the popular image of the horned Viking, this helmet more closely resembles the spangenhelm pattern that truly was the predominant style worn in battle throughout Northern Europe during the Viking Age. The misconception probably arose when archaeologists discovered drinking horns buried with helmets in grave sites. A much more likely accessory would’ve been an aventail – a curtain of chainmail fastened to the rim, and draped around the back of the neck.