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The Ghost Army was a United States Army tactical deception unit during World War II officially known as the 23rd Headquarters Special Troops. The 1,100-man unit was given a unique mission within the U.S Army: to impersonate other U.S. Army units to deceive the enemy. From a few weeks after D-Day, when they landed in France, until the end of the war, they put on a “traveling road show” utilizing inflatable tanks, sound trucks, fake radio transmissions and pretence. They staged more than 20 battlefield deceptions, often operating very close to the front lines. 

The unit consisted of the 406th Combat Engineers (which handled security), the 603rd Camouflage Engineers, the 3132 Signal Service Company Special and the Signal Company Special.

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The gladiatorial arena wasn’t just a meat grinder for male slaves with rippling abs. In fact, many of the people who participated in history’s most notorious blood sport were volunteers — trained soldiers and politicians looking for a little extra street cred. And, as it turns out, plenty of gladiators were women. Written records of female gladiators are persistent, but sparse, almost as if the Romans didn’t think the concept was so bizarre that they needed to specify when the combatants were women. Lady gladiators weren’t the result of some particularly progressive emperor who believed in gender equality in death sports, either. It was quite the opposite — women’s participation was the norm for 200 years, with evidence of various restrictions (no direct female relatives of a general or a senator could be recruited as gladiators, for instance) until Emperor Septimius Severus finally banned it, possibly because he had a cousin or something that got his ass chopped off by Lucretia the Crusher.

5 Ancient Discoveries That Prove Modern Men Are Sexist

In 1975, Dr. Vera Peters stood fast in front of 400 medical professionals and painstakingly proved them wrong.

This talk, in which she argued that breast cancer should be treated with removing merely the cancerous area and treating with radiation (instead of the borderline mutilation that was the standard treatment of the day), was not received well. Despite the overwhelming amount of evidence Peters presented — she had meticulously conducted a study of over 8,000 cases by hand — her findings were largely dismissed, and advocates of her “lumpectomy” methodology labeled incompetent. Her daughter, Dr. Jenny Ingram, recalls of the event, “there was just a dead silence at the end of this. I don’t think anyone could believe it, they were just shocked (by the data).”

History, of course, has borne out that she was correct, and her techniques are now the basis of modern-day breast cancer treatments.

This event was the second act to an already-remarkable life. In earlier years, her work on Hodgkin’s disease had brought it down from a death sentence to a treatable disease. Unfortunately, according to her contemporary Dr. Charles Hayter, the international medical community did not appreciate her spot in the limelight, and more or less shunned her, saying “go back to Toronto and do your women’s work.”

So she did. And improved the lot of a great many breast cancer survivors in the process.

She was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1975, raised to Officer in 1977, and was posthumously inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame in 2010. In January of 2015, the aforementioned Dr. Hayter wrote and put on a play about her, entitled Radical, in Toronto. It opened to good reviews.

Source: CBC, Wikipedia

(thanks to Moira for sending this in!)

Section from the rear wall of the temple of Hathor at Dendara. Here we can see Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV Caesarion (the son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar) offering to the deities of Dendara.

Caesarion (as he was nicknamed) was placed on the Egyptian throne as Cleopatra’s co-ruler following his father’s assassination in 44 BC. He proved to be a central figure in the political conflicts following Caesar’s death, as Cleopatra claimed that he was Caesar’s only legal heir. However, any power Caesarion managed to gain was brief: Octavian (or as he will later be known, Augustus Caesar), the adopted son of Julius Caesar, won the battle of Actium in 31. Following his mother’s suicide, Caesarion was murdered on the orders of Octavian. Octavian became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, ushering in Rome’s ‘golden age’.

Photo take by kairoinfo4u (cropped).

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Gallic Boar-Headed Carnyx (War Trumpet), Tintignac, France, 1st Century BC

The carnyx was a bronze wind instrument used by Iron Age Celts to rally troops and strike fear into the heart of their enemies from around 200 BC to 200 AD. It took the form of a very elongated ‘S’ shaped tube. The horn’s bell was usually shaped like an animal’s head with its mouth wide open. Seven carnyces were discovered at Tintignac; six of them have boar-shaped heads and the seventh takes the shape of a a serpent-like beast. 

The tall, upright carriage of the carnyx allowed it’s frightful sound to be heard over the heads of soldiers engaged in battle. The Greek historian Polybius (200-118 BC) was so impressed by the sound of the Gallic army and their carnyces that he wrote “The Romans, on the other hand, while encouraged by having got their enemy between two of their own armies, were at the same time dismayed by the ornaments and clamour of the Celtic host. For there were among them such innumerable horns and trumpets, which were being blown simultaneously in all parts of their army, and their cries were so loud and piercing, that the noise seemed not to come merely from trumpets and human voices, but from the whole country-side at once. ” (Histories II, 29)

You can hear the wickedly terrifying sound of the carnyx in this video, John Kenny - The Voice of the Carnyx.