2

Toxodon

Mounted specimen on display at Harvard Museum of Natural History

Reconstruction by Roman Uchytel

When: Pleistocene (~2.6 million to 16,000 years ago) 

Where: South America

What: Toxodon is another one of the large herbivorous animals that roamed over South America. Charles Darwin purchased the skull of the first Toxodon known to the Old World during his journey on the Beagle. This skull was sent back to England were Sir Richard Own described it and named the animal Toxodon - ‘bow teeth’ based on the curving nature of its gigantic molars. Soon complete skeletons of this amazing animal were known. The first interpratations reconstructed Toxodon as a semi-aquatic animal, much like the modern hippo, but later studies of the limbs and teeth of speciemens show this was incorrect. Toxodon  was more the analogue of today’s rhinos than a hippo, a fully terrestrial animal with teeth well adapted for grinding tough plants in somewhat arid environments. Some Toxodon specimens have been found associated with arrowheads, showing that the first people to emigrate into South America had contact with these animals, and appear to have hunted them. 

Where does Toxodon fit into the tree of life? Like its contemporary Macrauchenia (which you can see in the background of the reconstruction), its relationship to living mammals is uncertain. It falls into the larger clade of Notoungulata, literally Southern Ungulates, but the placment of this group within placental mammals is highly uncertain. They maybe have a close relationship with animals in the group Afrotheria but research in mammalian systematics is only beginning to be able to evaluate that, and other hypotheses.  So what is Toxodon? We just don’t know. 

2

Eomaia scansoria

…largely considered to be the first placental mammal Eomaia was a small Mesozoic mammal that lived in early Cretaceous China. Eomaia probably acted in a similar fashion to modern insectivores as it most likely was terrestrial and fed on insects. Unlike most Mesozoic mammal fossils which are only known by their teeth Eomaia is known from a complete fossil and is noted for its complex teeth and two layers of fur. Based on the remains of this complete fossil biologists are lead to believe that Eomaia was ancestral to all placental mammals, with females sporting a primitive placenta that allowed them to birth live young.

Phylogeny 

Animalia-Chordata-Mammalia-Eutheria-Eomaia

Images: Nobu Tamura and Ghedoghedo

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Equus Sanctuary Mission is the rescue and rehabilitation of slaughterhouse bound horses. Welcome to EquusCS.com Build to order Desktop PCs, Servers, and Notebook Computers.. Dewynters | +44 (0)20 7321 0488 | 48 Leicester Square. Equus Products, INC. is a prime manufacturer of diagnostic & scan tools, test equipment, gauges and tachometers for the automotive aftermarket. Equus (genus) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Equus is a genus of animals in the family Equidae that includes horses, donkeys, and zebras. EQUUS Magazine The Horse Owner’s Resource This month in EQUUS magazine includes online extras, a table of contents, related books and more. Innovative media, marketing and creative solutions for the entertainment industry. Within Equidae, Equus is the only extant genus.. Privacy Policy. Equus Products, Inc. COMPANY 1998 - 2011 Equus Computer Systems, Inc. Equus Unlimited Tack Shop - Serving equine needs since 1991 Leading equine store supplying equine products since 1991, find saddles, bits, clothing, helmets, blankets, toys and gifts and so many more equine products.. ISV SERVICES. Contact Us. Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Manufacturing automotive electronics, home control systems, and sport electronics. Equus Inc. Hyundai Equus : | Experience 2011 Equus Experience. We strive to be the


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Press Gang albums

It’s hard to believe this little guy is related to aardvarks, sea cows and elephants! The fifteen species of sengis belong to the family Macroscelididae. Commonly referred to as elephant shrews, living life on the fast lane is nothing short of typical for them. The rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens) pictured above is designed for speed, looking like a mix between an anteater and antelope. The funniest thing about them is their appearance, resembling a race car with stripes along their eyes.

With high metabolism to keep up with their quick speeds, food is constantly needed.. But movement attracts predators. This is where their odd lifestyle comes into play. They have intimately remembered every detail of a specific trail that they follow every minute of every day, clearing out obstacles and devouring any insects in the way. Their front feet aid in clearing in any potentially dangerous obstacles, and even a simple twig could have dire consequences.

Being monogamous, they often guard their acre of land from competition for mates. Rivals encounter each other and strut with their long legs to look impressive, and then suddenly dissolves into a frenzy of fur.. which literally ends in seconds. Later on, the dominant male will have up to two hyperactive offspring that look like miniature replicas of the adults. Although the young will have no fatherly care, he will warn both them and the mother of nearby predators by tapping his feet on the ground before fleeing for his life.

2

Megalonyx- Jefferson’s ground sloth 

When: Late Miocene to end Pleistocene (~10 million years to 10,000 years ago)

Where: Throughout North America 

What: Megalonyx is a giant ground sloth, that grew to roughly 8-10 feet (~2.5 to 3.0 meters) long.  They are the genus of giant ground sloth most closely related to the living two-toed sloth Choloepus. Sloths originated, and most of them diversified in South America, moving northward during the great American interchange, but Megalonyx is a major exception. Its ancestors reached North America millions of years prior to the massive migrations of other South America taxa; via island hopping. This relatively early arrival allowed it to spread throughout the northern continent. Megalonyx is the only species of sloth to have reached as far north as Alaska and the Yukon. It was common in many of the lower 48 states. Like many ground sloths, Megalonyx went extinct at the end of the last glacial period. 

A more recent historical note about Megalonyx; this genus was the first fossil from the Americas to be described, and the person who did so was none other than Thomas Jefferson. He proposed the name Megalonyx for the genus, based on first material recovered - the gigantic claws. Later this genus name was formalized and a species named in his honor:  Megalonyx jeffersoni (this species is the state fossil of West Virginia). Jefferson was very hopeful that living Megalonyx would be found in the uncharted west, he told Lewis and Clark to be sure to be on the look out for this beast and report back when it was discovered. 

3

DNA ANALYSIS and PREHISTORIC GEOGRAPHY
Reconstructed Tree of Life for the Eutheria –– Placental Mammals

TOP LEFT: Placental mammalian phylogenetic tree

TOP RIGHT: Three phylogenetic hypotheses to root the eutherian tree:
[1] based in Africa, [2] based in the Americas, and [3] based in what would become Europe.
[Source = PNAS article: Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of mammals

MIDDLE  Eutheria by science writer Maija Karala [Finland]

BOTTOM  Simplification, with examples, of the chart at top right
_________________________________________

Molecular studies based on DNA analysis have suggested new relationships among mammal families over the last few years. Most of these findings have been independently validated by retrotransposon presence/absence data.

Molecular clocks suggest that these clades diverged from early common ancestors in the Cretaceous, but fossils have not yet been found to corroborate this hypothesis. These molecular findings are consistent with mammal zoogeography.

These molecular results are still controversial because they are not reflected by morphological data and therefore many systematists do not accepted this phylogeny.  [source]

The Twenty-One Orders of Eutheria  [source]

  • ATLANTOGENATA:
    Originated / radiated in South America and Africa
  • AFROTHERIA: groups currently living in Africa or of African origin
  • 1.1.1 Order Afrosoricida (tenrecs and golden moles)
  • 1.1.2 Order Macroscelidea (elephant shrew or sengis)
  • 1.1.3 Order Tubulidentata (aardvarks)
  • 1.1.4 Order Hyracoidea (hyrax)
  • 1.1.5 Order Proboscidea (elephants)
  • 1.1.6 Order Sirenia (manatees, dugong, and sea cows)
  • XENARTHRA: extant today only in the Americas
  • 1.1.7 Order Cingulata (armadillos)
  • 1.1.8 Order Pilosa (anteaters and sloths) Your baby sloth is here.

  • BOREOTHERIA: 
    Originated / radiated in “the North”
  • EUARCHONTOGLIRES  [Supraprimates]:
    developed in the Laurasian island group that became Europe
  • 1.1.9 Order Scandentia (treeshrews)
  • 1.1.10 Order Dermoptera (colugos)
  • 1.1.11 Order Primates  You are here.
               (lemurs, lorids, galagos, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans, etc.)
  • 1.1.12 Order Rodentia (mice, rats, squirrels, chipmunks, gophers, etc.)
  • 1.1.13 Order Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pika)
  • LAURASIATHERIA:
    evolved on the supercontinent of Laurasia
  • 1.1.14 Order Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs and gymnures)
  • 1.1.15 Order Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)
  • 1.1.16 Order Chiroptera (bats)
  • 1.1.17 Order Pholidota (pangolins)
  • 1.1.18 Order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises)
  • 1.1.19 Order Carnivora (cats, lions, and other feliformia;
               dogs, bears, weasels, seals, and other caniformia)
               Your dog or cat is here.
  • 1.1.20 Order Perissodactyla (horse, zebra, tapir, rhinoceros, etc.)
  • 1.1.21 Order Artiodactyla (pigs, camels, cattle, deer, etc.)
               Unless you’re vegetarian, you often eat here.

Hey guys… remember that BIG thing I said I was working on… here it is!

The entire dynasty of Eutherian Mammals (for the most part)! References are provided in the image. A bigger version is on DeviantArt: (http://classicalguy.deviantart.com/art/The-Tree-of-Eutherian-Mammals-472367133?ga_submit_new=10%253A1406914126)

Again, use at your own risk, I’m not a licensed zoologist, blah blah…

And a big handshake to Christopher Taylor & his article on ‘creodonts’ (http://coo.fieldofscience.com/2009/08/creodonts-carnivores-by-association.html) which proved useful for this tree.

How do you do? My name is Ray. I am of the Kingdom of Animalia, the phylum of Chordata (meaning I have a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and had a post-anal tail for the very earliest portion of my life, though it broke off before birth), within the subphylum of Vertebrata (although I’m not particularly happy with my vertebrae lately), the class of Mammalia (although I really should specify that I am in the subclass known as Theria because, should I unthinkably procreate, the offspring would not be found in a hard-shelled egg, and, even more specifically, the infraclass of Eutheria because I am not a marsupial, nor anything similar), the Order of Primates (that’s “pri-mah-tees” even though its members are called “pry-mates”), the suborder of Anthropoidea, the Superfamily of and Family of Hominidae (and it’s not uncommon for names to double like that… just as the Gorilla gorilla sometime), the Genus of Homo, and the species of sapiens. It should also bear mentioning that I’m of the subspecies of sapiens. In the great Linnaeus-made practice of Binomial Nomenclature, you’d call us Homo sapiens sapiens, in that we’re supposedly the extra-intelligent line of the species, but I find that to be a rather arrogant, civilization-centered bias. Needless to say, I live in America but have the ancestry of the invaders of the land, so in truth, I am not in my native habitat and feel more of a captive of civilization rather than a willful part of it. And how about you?
—  ////\(◌ˎᴗˏ◌)/\\
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