being a foreigner outside of America while all this is happening in Ferguson doesn’t mean you just get to condemn the police and the racist society without thinking critically about how deeply entrenched racism is in your country too

  • what you're saying:some people come on tumblr as an escape, all your ferguson posts are making them uncomfortable!!
  • what i'm hearing:i don't want to acknowledge the rampant racism and police brutality against black people in north america because it does not affect me directly and i probably benefit from the white supremacy entrenched in the country's laws and societal beliefs and i, unlike anyone else who has a soul and a conscience, am able to disconnect from the incredible injustices occurring so being reminded that i am a terrible piece of shit for not caring about the rights of people whom, thanks to their oppression, puts me in a position of privilege is ruining my mayonnaise evening

Entrenched

U.S. Army Sgt. Auralie Suarez and Pvt. Brett Mansink take cover in a ditch Al Doura, Iraq, March 7, 2007. The Soldiers are from Charlie Company, 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division and were on a joint patrol in Al Rashid when their unit received small-arms fire from Al Doura. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Sean A. Foley)

Oxytocin helps to better overcome fear

Frightening experiences do not quickly fade from memory. A team of researchers under the guidance of the University of Bonn Hospital has now been able to demonstrate in a study that the bonding hormone oxytocin inhibits the fear center in the brain and allows fear stimuli to subside more easily. This basic research could also usher in a new era in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The study has already appeared in advance online in the journal “Biological Psychiatry”. The print edition will be available in a few weeks.

Significant fear becomes deeply entrenched in memory. Following a car accident, for example, it is difficult to manage street traffic once again - even screeching tires can evoke significant anxiety. Scientists refer to this as “conditioning”. Certain images or noises are very closely intertwined in the brain with the experience of pain or fear. Only gradually does one learn that not every screeching tire means danger. This active overwriting in the memory is known as “extinction”. “In this process, however, the original contents of the memory are not erased but instead merely overlaid with positive experiences,” explains Prof. Dr. Dr. René Hurlemann from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the University of Bonn Hospital. If there are dangerous situations once again, the fear, which was believed to have been already overcome, frequently flares up once more.

Extinction is often used in therapy for anxiety disorders. For example, a person suffering from a spider phobia will gradually and increasingly come face to face with spiders. First the patient has to view photos of spiders and then look at living examples until finally he holds a tarantula in his hand. When people with an anxiety disorder experience as frequently as possible the fact that they do not need to fear the trigger, their fear is reduced. “However, this can take a very long time, because this confrontation with the fearful situation frequently has to be experienced. In addition, there may be relapses because the original trace of fear is still anchored in the memory,” reports Prof. Hurlemann. This is why therapists seek a possibility for “overwriting” the fearful memory in a faster and longer-lasting way.

Oxytocin facilitates overwriting of fearful experiences

It has been known for a long time that the hormone oxytocin does not just have a bonding effect in the mother-child relationship and in the case of sex partners but that it is also considered to be anxiolytic. The scientists at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University of Bonn, together with their colleagues from the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg and the University of Chengdu (China) have now been able to prove its helpful effect in overwriting fearful experiences. “Oxytocin actually reinforces extinction: Under its influence, the expectation of recurrent fear subsequently abates to a greater extent than without this messenger,” says study director Prof. Hurlemann, summarizing the result.

The team of scientists induced fear conditioning in a total of 62 healthy male subjects. In the brain scanner, using video glasses, the test subjects viewed photos, for example of human faces. For 70 percent of the images, they received a very brief, unpleasant electrical shock to the hand via electrodes. “In this way, certain images were associated with an experience of anxiety in the test subjects’ memory,” explains Prof. Hurlemann. The scientists used two methods to prove that this pairing of a particular photo and pain was actually anchored in the test subjects’ brains: The expectation of an electrical shock was demonstrated by increased cold sweat which was measured via skin conductivity. In addition, the brain scans prove that the fear regions in the brain were always particularly active.

Half of the test subjects received oxytocin via a nasal spray. The rest received a placebo. Then the extinction phase began in which the test persons were shown the same pictures several times as before but they no longer received electrical shocks. In the men under the influence of oxytocin, the amygdala, as the fear center in the brain, was overall far less active than in the control group, whereas fear-inhibiting regions were more stimulated. Over time, the messenger caused the fear to initially be somewhat greater but then it abated to a far greater extent than without oxytocin. The scientists explain this through the special effect of the messenger: “Oxytocin initially reinforces the test subjects’ conscious impressions and thus the reaction to the electrical shock, yet after a few minutes, the anxiolytic effect prevails,” explains Prof. Hurlemann.

The scientists hope that anxiety patients can be helped more quickly with the aid of oxytocin and that a relapse can be better prevented. In addition, the researchers presume that the hormone likely facilitates bonding between the therapist and the patient and thus the success of the treatment. “However, this must first be demonstrated by clinical studies,” says the scientist from the University of Bonn Hospital.

(Image: Shutterstock)

It was interesting hearing that perspective from Charlie—INTP friend. When I encounter toxic ideas, I focus on asking a question or series of questions that might make the individual reconsider their stance. My focus is less on the idea itself and more on the individual’s connection to the idea.

"well he’s a young boy, what do you expect"

I expect parents and authority figures to work their asses off day in and day out to reinforce that unacceptable behaviour will never be tolerated, I expect people to stop validating what they do by excusing this bullshit because they’re young and male, and I fucking expect society at large to acknowledge that a twelve year old boy who never learns what consent means is going to grow up to be an adult man who doesn’t know what consent means and to both take and instill the responsibility for that in itself.

ok also even though i just said in my last post ‘cheering on either issue is going to help the other’ i would also like to point out there’s a lot of prominent white feminists who genuinely seem to expect black women to shut up and wait their turn for their human rights to be addressed so like that’s fucked. that’s fucked up. if you’re a white feminist and you want equality but that doesn’t extend to giving a shit about racial equality what you really want is just to get yours, which means that while you might be a feminist you are also a huge asshole. 

anonymous asked:

Last night I was entrenched in the depths of Elizabethan history,when I had the craziest thing happen. As I read about the periodic night raids of potentially subversive aristocrats, images of a young Killian leading a raid on the home of Lord Charming, and then there was Emma and Killian snarkiness. Oh it was glorious (and frustrating to my paper)! The next thing that popped into my head as I nerded over my OTP and history was, "Oh my God is this what it's like to be Hilary?"

OH GOD WHY DID YOU DO THIS TO ME

David, Lord Nolan, is Duke of Norfolk and was a notable Catholic in Queen Mary’s day, but when Elizabeth took the throne, he converted to Protestantism along with most of the country. However, the queen’s advisors are convinced that it was only for political expediency and that Lord Nolan remains deeply involved in the Catholic Stuart secret plans to put Mary, Queen of Scots, on the English throne — suspicions that are fanned by the fact of his French-born wife, Marie-Marguerite Blanchard, having considerable connections among Mary’s former French court and the formidable Duc de Guise. Nolan’s only daughter and heiress, Emma, is also close to Thomas More’s granddaughter — whose mother was Margaret Roper, one of the most learned and influential women in the country. Spirited, beautiful, and strong-minded, Emma has recently come to Queen Elizabeth’s court and has caught the eye of more than one eligible gentleman there, but she disdains their attentions — even those of Lord Cassidy, son of Robert Gold, the queen’s infamous court magician and soothsayer.

Killian Jones is an Irish-born mercenary who has been hired by Francis Walsingham, the queen’s spymaster, to raid Nolan’s Norfolk estate and capture any incriminating letters, materials, or priests hidden down holes. He is a colorful, roguish rakehell— he is close with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, which Dudley’s enemies like to use against him when discouraging his suit to Elizabeth, and the queen herself, always one for a handsome man, has showed him unusual favor for a Dublin orphan, which has earned Jones plenty of enemies of his own. But the crown is no stranger to employing dashing, lone-wolf privateers; Jones has just returned from sailing in the Caribbean under letters of marque, pillaging Spanish treasure galleons and bringing home the spoils for England. He runs in the same circles as fellow privateer Sir Walter Raleigh, and served as a routier in Flanders for some time as well, fighting in Continental wars. He’s rumored to be a member of the School of Night alongside Raleigh and Christopher Marlowe, so part of his agreement to work for Walsingham is that the crown does not pry too closely into his own connections. He, too, is on thin ice.

Emma has just returned home to consider a marriage proposal from Lord Cassidy, which her parents urge her to accept, on the night Killian Jones comes to Arundel Castle in Sussex to launch his raid. Of all the things he was expecting to cross his path, the beautiful blonde daughter of the lord of the house, armed with a silver candelabra and capable of delivering a smart blow across the skull, was certainly not one of them.