Humans migrated north, rather than south, in the main successful migration from Cradle of Humankind
New research suggests that European and Asian (Eurasian) peoples originated when early Africans moved north - through the region that is now Egypt - to expand into the rest of the world. The findings, published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, answer a long-standing question as to whether early humans emerged from Africa by a route via Egypt, or via Ethiopia.
The extensive public catalogue of the genetic diversity in Ethiopian and Egyptian populations developed for the project also now provides a valuable, freely available, reference panel for future medical and anthropological studies in these areas.
Two geographically plausible routes have been proposed for humans to emerge from Africa: through the current Egypt and Sinai (Northern Route), or through Ethiopia, the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Arabian Peninsula (Southern Route). Some lines of evidence have previously favoured one, some the other. Read more.
Kushite Empire - Part 1: “Rise of the Kushite Empire” - LINK
Capture of Oxyrhynchus, Tetehen, Hatbenu
They captured Oxyrhynchus and set siege to the great fortress of Teheneh: “Then the battering-ram [or siege tower] was employed against it, its wall was overthrown, and a great slaughter was made among them of unknown number; also the son of the chief of the Meshesh, Tefnakhte.”
The city of Hatbenu was also taken, and yet Piye still wasn’t pleased. Piye made it to the city of Thebes where he where he celebrated a Feast to Amun and a Feast to Opet. He then set sail towards Hermopolis where he scolded his men for taking this long to finish off the enemy.
Foreign prisoners of Ramesses III - Libyan, Nubian, Syrian, Shasu Bedouin, and Hittite. Note the Libyan’s tattoos.
Piye sieges Hermopolis: “He set up for himself the camp on the southwest of Hermopolis and besieged it daily. An embankment was made, to enclose the wall; a tower was raised to elevate the archers while shooting, and the slingers while slinging stones, and slaying people among them daily.”
Days later the city surrendered [as did Nimlot], offering all manner of gifts in gold, silver, bronze, precious stones [lapis lazuli, malachite among others], clothing, and the uraeus of Nimlot. There Piye visited the temple of the god Thoth (Hermopolis’ patron god), after he made sacrifices of bulls, fowl and calves, the people of Hermopolis rejoiced.
^ Libyans. Note the tattoos
^ Libyan Warrior. Note the tattoos
^ Libyans captured by Egyptians. Note the tattoos.
[Before the Libyans came to rule over Egypt they were depicted as having tattoos, long hair with long side locks, antelope skin robes, shaved mustache but the beard was left alone unless long enough to braid. Later on, under Egyptian influence, they began to have shorter hair which was braided and beaded, two feathers atop their heads, and although they kept their antelope skin robes they now also wore the Egyptian styled kilts which sported an animal tail from the band.]
^ Libyans and Egyptians
His love of horses “It has been noted in recent studies of horse skeletons from el Kurru by Bokonyi (1993) and the textual evidence of use of horses in Kushite warfare indicates that the finest horses used in contemporary Egypt and Assyria were bred and exported from Nubia” - Nubian Pharaohs and Meroitic Kings
His love of horses, as stated in his stela which resided at Jebel Barkal:
“And his majesty went into the palace where the horses were kept, and into the stalls of the foals and he perceived that they had been suffering from hunger, and he said, “I swear by my own life, and the love for Ra, that to my mind, to allowed my horses to suffer hunger is the worst violence of all the evil things which thou has done in the violence of thy heart.””
King in the North
[RED] Tefnakhte - King in the North, Chief of the West, Libyan King of Saïs.
The ruler of Heracleopolis, Pefnefdibast (an ally of Piye), bore tribute in the form of gold, silver, precious stones, horses and “He threw himself upon his belly before his majesty” in praise and as symbol of loyalty. Piye sailed north and reached the stronghold of Per-Sekhemkhperre which under the threatening words of Piye, opened its gates to him and no blood was shed (“granaries [were assigned] to the divine offerings of his father, Amon-Re, lord of Thebes”).The same occurred at the cities of Mer-Atum [Meidum] and Ithtowe (Itjtawy - Aphroditopolis).
Battle of Memphis
Nubian troops storm the walled capital of Memphis with flaming arrows by Gregory Manchess
The next city to give resistance was that of Memphis which refused to open its doors and raised a militia army of artisans, builders and sailors. Under the cover of darkness Tefnakhte entered Memphis, reinforcing the militia with his best men, this army now numbered 8,000 men.
“It is fortified with a wall; a great battlement has been built, executed with skillful workmanship. The river flows around the east side, and no opportunity of attack is found there.”
There seemed to be no plausible way to take the city, the enraged Piye ordered his men to gather up every ship that lay within the harbor of Memphis and sail the against the walls as to mount them via the masts of the ships.
“Then his majesty was enraged against it like a panther; he said: “I swear, as Re loves me, as my father, Amon [who fashioned me], favors me, this shall befall it, according to the command of Amon.”
“I will take it like a flood of water, for Amun has commanded me!”
“His majesty himself came to line up the ships, as many as there were. His majesty commanded his army (saying): "Forward against it! Mount the walls! Penetrate the houses over the river. If one of you gets through upon the wall, let him not halt before it, [so that] the (hostile) troops may not repulse you.”
[Note the masts of the ships behind the wall]
The city of Memphis was taken “as (by) a flood of water” and because they resisted him, there was a great slaughter (the survivors were held captives [The city was then ritually cleansed with natron and incense].
After the fall of the city of Memphis, resistance in the region fell away, princes and kings of the Nile Delta came to the king with offerings treasure and peace. Only the city of Mesed revolted but it was swiftly quelled and every man within its walls was slaughtered.
A triumphant Kushite King accepting the homage of vanquished princes in Egypt in 724 BC By James Gurney
Piye’s Victory stele, Piye is given tribute by four Nile Delta rulers
Piye now returned to Kush with the riches they attained on this holy conquest. “Then the ships were laden with silver, gold, copper, clothing, and everything of the Northland, every product of Syria, and all sweet woods of God’s Land.”
Piye was buried at El-Kurru, one of the royal cemeteries used by the Nubian royal family.
El-Kurru Pyramid. K.17 contains a tomb dating to the time of Piye
A rough estimate of how tall the pyramid might have once been, About 34.5 meters high (113.189 feet high), compared to some of the other pyramids which used to be about 34 meters high as well (111.549 feet high). [Source]
Wide view of Nubian pyramids, Meroe. Three of these pyramids are reconstructed.
Jebel Barkal - the pillar on the left was seen as the giant statue of a cobra, therefore the mountain was seen as a giant uraeus (picture by T. Kendall)
Bronze statuette of the Nubian King, Shabaqo by B. V. Bothmer Note the uraeus atop his head.
Most of the information I’ve supplied has come straight from the English translations of Piye’s stele. (SOURCE)
She is naked, standing with arms along the body, wrists adorned with bracelets, arm and ankle, and ribbons on his chest. Her hairstyle, made of long strands, is topped by a large crown topped with a vegetable basket with the disc between the horns.
Picture of a Sphinx in Cairo, Egypt. A sphinx is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and a human head. In Greek tradition, it has the haunches of a lion, sometimes with the wings of a great bird, and the face of a human.
After returning from the frontlines, Crisis Group’s Libya Senior Analyst Claudia Gazzini speaks to our Director of Communications and Outreach Hugh Pope to report her major findings on the presence of the Islamic State in the country. Gazzini argues that the critical humanitarian situation and the internal division of the many factions of this conflict can only be solved by, first, stopping the arms and economic supply to the actors involved and, second, pushing the peace talks forward.
36,400 BC: The Historical time of the Zep Tepi Theory
Guest author, Armando Mei, presents fascinating new evidence supporting
the view that the great monuments of ancient Egypt are much older than
currently believed. After 20 years of research, Armando Mei found that
the Great Pyramids, the Sphinx, and other monuments were perfectly
aligned at the beginning of the ‘Zep Tepi’, the Golden Age of Osiris, in