edward-jenner

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Can we honestly just take a second to look at how he went from what the fuck to how the fuck did he do that. 1/5

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Top: Edward Jenner performing his initial inoculation experiments in 1796
Bottom: Typical presentation of vaccination site when successfully inoculated.

You know those shots and nasal sprays you get for vaccinations these days? Well, it wasn’t always like that. Though the practice of intentionally infecting people with Variola minor (much less fatal) to avoid Variola major goes back all the way to ancient China, Edward Jenner performed the most well-documented trials of using inoculation with Vaccinia virus (cowpox), in order to avoid later infection from smallpox.

Jenner, and many other physicians of the period, noticed that milkmaids and other farm-hands who had close contact with cows almost never became infected with smallpox during outbreaks, and hypothesized that the reason was due to the fact that they’d previously been infected by cowpox. To prove this fact, Jenner actually used his own children as guinea pigs, and inoculated them with the fluid from a cowpox sore on a milkmaid. To do this, he had to puncture the dermis with the infectious agent, and the child would contract a generally mild cowpox infection several days later.

As you can see on the lower image, the effects on the skin were not pretty, and the virus often caused substantial scarring, which can still be seen on most people who received the vaccines - just ask any relative growing up before the 1950s, and they probably still have that scar!

The method of Vaccinia virus inoculation to prevent serious smallpox infection was also much more dangerous than vaccination methods we have today. Approximately 1 in 1000 people would die from the initial methods , and approximately 1 in 75,000 people would die from the last methods used before we discontinued routine vaccination. This is because the virus was not attenuated (weakened) at first, and even when it was, you still had to have the body react as if it were infected in order to receive any immunity. It was a lot worse than the acute soreness some of today’s vaccinations give us, but it still saved thousands of lives - Variola major had a 35% mortality rate in unvaccinated people.

Top: “The Vaccination (1796)” by Gaston-Theodore Melingue, 1879.
Bottom: Pediatrics: The Hygienic and Medical Treatment of Children. Thomas Morgan Retch, 1906.

A page from a first edition copy of Edward Jenner’s “An Inquiry Into the Causes and effects of the Variolae Vaccinae” with a hand colored sanguine engraving of cow pox.  With the publication of this volume Dr. Jenner outlined using Cowpox to cure Smallpox thus saving more lives than any other man in history. They don’t call him the Father of Immunology for nothing! 

Did you know that the first successful vaccine was for smallpox?

As a young doctor, Edward Jenner was obsessed with finding a way to prevent horrific and deadly smallpox infections. He noticed that milkmaids who contracted cowpox were later immune to smallpox and used this discovery to develop the first smallpox vaccine in 1796. Jenner’s process was used all over the world, saving millions of lives.

Want to learn more about vaccination?  Read the Academy’s report to get your questions answered: http://bit.ly/FAQAdultVaccines

source 

Part of a human stomach dissected by Edward Jenner, England, 1790-1823

Edward Jenner (1749-1823) was the pioneer of vaccination but was also known for his delicate dissections. Here, the section of the stomach has been flattened and injected with wax to show the veins and arteries as well as the delicate membrane of the stomach wall. It may have been used as a teaching aid to show the structure of the stomach. Dissection was an increasingly common part of medical education at this time but due to a lack of bodies preparations such as this were important to show students the workings of the human body. Without wax injection, the blood vessels could not be as easily identified.

Culture Appropriation Part 3

Jennifer Aniston: 

Nicki Minaj: 

Lady Gaga (yet again):

Pink:

Christina Aguilera:

Kylie Jenner, Kendall Jenner and Selena Gomez (Again?)

Vanessa Hudgens (wearing a headdress but because she aint dating Zayn malik none cares):

Heidi Klum:

Perrie Edwards:

Little Mix:

Yet only Perrie can get shit for it because the bitch is dating Zayn Malik weather your a jealous fangirl or you ship him with someone else gives you no right to be an asshole, not every Mixer ships Zerrie I sure as fuck don’t 5SOS got most of their fame from 1D and so did Little Mix who the fuck cares? stop being an asshole if your going to take one thing from cultural appropriation take it all and on’t tell me you’ve never eaten a pizza or a Chinese or an Indian lots of people also wear the cross but are you gonna bitch at them too?