This is a primary calcified hydatid cyst in the brain of 25 year old shepherd from India. Hydatid cysts are the result of parasitic infection by the tapeworm Echinococcus. Typically these cysts form in the liver or lungs, though it’s not uncommon for the cysts to form elsewhere. The cyst was removed and the patient was given anti-parasitic treatments.

Hydatid cysts

Cysts are abnormal closed cavities within the body, usually containing liquid.

Hydatid cysts are formed during the larval stage of Echinococcus tapeworms.

All disease-causing species of Echinococcus are transmitted via the ingestion of eggs by means of eating infected, cyst-containing organs.

Humans are accidental hosts that become infected by handling soil, dirt or animal hair that contains eggs.

Echinococcus infestations can usually be treated with medicine and cysts can be removed during surgery (depending on the location of the cysts, complications may arise).

Pacient immigrant from Argentina, he has worked as a farmer his whole life and lived in a rural area, his primary complaints are a vague abdominal pain and a feeling of abdominal distention.

The radiograph reveals multiple large curvilinear calcifications overlying the liver; the list of differential considerations would include cyst, abscess, or metastatic disease, but in this patient from a rural area of South America the most likely diagnosis is hydatid cysts, hydatid cysts are caused by the larval cystic stage of a tapeworm from the genus Echinococcus, endemic to the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and Australia; the classic radiographic features are large well defined curvilinear or ring line calcifications in the right lobe of the liver, in most patients they are asymptomatic until they either rupture or cause mass effect

North Cyprus - Kyrenia Municipality gives notice to dog owners

Kyrenia Municipality gives notice to dog owners

By Chris Elliott

It would seem that representatives of the Kyrenia Municipality were out on the highways and byways delivering notices to the owners of dogs. This must have been an easy

task as most dogs bark when strangers come to the gate.

So in our locality every property that has a dog in the garden received a notice in both English and Turkish…

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Parasitology - Treatment
  • Metronidazole:Giardia lamblia, Trichomona vaginalis, Entamoeba hystolytica
  • Nitazoxanide:Cryptosporidium
  • Pyrimethamine + Sulfadiazine:Toxoplasma gondii
  • Suramin:Trypanosma bruceii (blood borne)
  • Melarsoprol:Trypanosoma bruceii (CNS)
  • Nifurtimox or Benznidazole:Trypanosoma cruzi
  • Amphotericin B:Naegleria fowleri, Leishmania donovani
  • Sodium stibogluconate (Pentavalent Antimony):Leishmania donovani
  • Cloroquine:Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae
  • Cloroquine + Primaquine:Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax
  • Quinidine (IV):severe Plasmodium infx
  • Mefloquine or Atovaquone/Proguanil:Plasmodium resistant
  • Atovaquone + Azythromycin:Babesia
  • Diethylcarbamazine (DEC):Loa loa, Wucheria bancrofti
  • Ivermectin:Onchocerca volvulus, Strongyloides stercolaris
  • Bendazoles or Pyrantel Pa M oate:Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus (ne M atodes)
  • M ebendazole:Toxocara canis
  • Albendazole:Strongyloides stercolaris, Toxocara canis, neurocysticercosis, Echinococcus granulosus.
  • P raziquantel:Taenia solium, Schistosoma, Diphylobotrium latum, Clonorchis (P latyhelminthes)

Histology Look-a-like #150

Echinococcus granulosus vs. the Empty Child (Doctor Who)

Submitted by fuckyeahvaleyard

Just in case we need any more reasons to be terrified of internal parasites…

I took this photo in 2011 in a parasitology practical class, and I’m not likely to see another one as they’re all-but-eradicated now in New Zealand. 

The normal life-cycle of these critters is between dogs and sheep - however, if a human handles the faeces of a host dog, the eggs have a nasty habit of lodging under the fingernails and infecting the unwitting, unhygienic human when we stick our grubby fingers in our food. 

The parasite can’t complete its life-cycle in a human (since, you know, dogs don’t usually eat us), so it sits there and forms a big fluid-filled bubble called a “hydatid cyst”, which can contain several litres of fluid. The not so squeamish can see a cyst (in a liver) here.

So, wash your hands, unless you want to be giving a different answer to “are you my mummy?”

Terrifyingly good look-a-like fuckyeahvaleyard

Thank you so much for sharing!


Genome-wide sequencing of small #RNAs reveals a tissue-specific loss of conserved #microRNA families in Echinococcus granulosus

Background: Micro#RNAs (#miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators which control growth and development in eukaryotes. The cestode Echinococcus granulosus has a complex life-cycle involving different development stages but the mechanisms underpinning this development, including the involvement of #miRNAs, remain unknown. Results: Using Illumina next generation sequencing technology, we sequenced at the genome-wide level three small #RNA populations from the adult, protoscolex and cyst membrane of E. granulosus. A total of 94 pre-#miRNA candidates (coding 91 mature #miRNAs and 39 #miRNA stars) were in silico predicted. Through comparison of expression profiles, we found 42 mature #miRNAs and 23 #miRNA stars expressed with different patterns in the three life stages examined. Furthermore, considering both the previously reported and newly predicted #miRNAs, 25 conserved #miRNAs families were identified in the E. granulosus genome. Comparing the presence or absence of these #miRNA families with the free-living Schmidtea mediterranea, we found 13 conserved #miRNAs are lost in E. granulosus, most of which are tissue-specific and involved in the development of ciliated cells, the gut and sensory organs. Finally, GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed #miRNAs and their potential targets indicated that they may be involved in bi-directional development, nutrient metabolism and nervous system development in E. granulosus. Conclusions: This study has, for the first time, provided a comprehensive description of the different expression patterns of #miRNAs in three distinct life cycle stages of E. granulosus. The analysis supports earlier suggestions that the loss of #miRNAs in the Platyhelminths might be related to morphological simplification. These results may help in the exploration of the mechanism of interaction between this parasitic worm and its definitive and intermediate hosts, providing information that can be used to develop new interventions and therapeutics for the control of cystic echinococcosis. #BMC