Sometimes I have a hard day at work. On on days like that I like to cheer myself up by having some fun with an otherwise boring process.
This is a TARDIS that I patterned on silicon with electron-beam lithography. The TARDIS is 30 micrometres high (but it’s bigger on the inside) and its smallest features are the letters on “Public Call” which are only 50 nm thick. The whole thing is picked out in a metal called palladium.
On top of being a thing that makes me happy it also has a practical use. It is in fact a comprehensive dose test for my EBL process. By patterning an array of TARDISes I can check what the optimum dose of electrons is for each feature type; Areas, Lines, and Dots.
Astronomers have tracked gamma rays emanating from active galaxies called blazars (yellow ovals, right) to measure the extragalactic background light throughout the universe’s history. Even at great distances, the EBL washed out most of the gamma rays (top), suggesting that stars were already forming and spitting out photons during early eras.
Detection of the Cosmic Gamma Ray Horizon: Measures All the Light in the Universe Since the Big Bang
May 24, 2013 — How much light has been emitted by all galaxies since the cosmos began? After all, almost every photon (particle of light) from ultraviolet to far infrared wavelengths ever radiated by all galaxies that ever existed throughout cosmic history is still speeding through the Universe today. If we could carefully measure the number and energy (wavelength) of all those photons — not only at the present time, but also back in time — we might learn important secrets about the nature and evolution of the Universe, including how similar or different ancient galaxies were compared to the galaxies we see today.
Beer garden to boardwalk, ideas abound for Brookfield’s Eble Park
They suggested offering mini golf, an amphitheater, a coffee shop, a beer garden and a boardwalk raised to tree-top height. Others favored a more conservative approach. “Help us and the population come to remember what this area was like before the …