Horizontal Sections of the Adult Male Top-to-Bottom:Mid-section of skull, section at maxilla [hard palate between sections], section below mandible
Eugène-Louis Doyen was a revolutionary (if flamboyant and controversy-loving) Parisian surgeon who lived between 1859 and 1919.
Long before the Visible Human Project created its 1,871 “slices” of Joseph Paul Jernigan at 1 mm intervals, and created over 65 gigs of anatomical data (and later created 40 gigs of data with a female cadaver), Doyen presented a new way of visualizing the cadaver: longitudinal and horizontal sections, showing exactly how the human anatomy goes together in each area, without the context of seeing the full organs or bones.
Though the full usefulness of these unorthodox sections wasn’t truly appreciated until the advent of tomography in the early 1970s, they were noted to be helpful to early radiologists, and especially to the burgeoning fields of criminal forensics and forensic archaeology.
When bodies are plastinated, a technique pioneered by Gunter von Hagens in 1977, the body is first treated with formaldehyde, similar to an open-casket funeral, but at a higher concentration.The veins and arteries are injected with red and blue plastics.
The body is then dissected in any way required for the planned exhibit or sale piece.
After dissection, the specimen is placed in an acetone bath its temperature is lowered to below the freezing point of water, but above the freezing point of acetone. When the water in the cells expands due to freezing, it’s drawn out of the cells, and it’s replaced by acetone.
When all of the tissues are impregnated with acetone, the body is placed in a bath of polymer or plastic resin, and placed into a vacuum. Because acetone has an already-low boiling point, putting it into a vacuum causes it to boil at room-temperature, while still in the cells. The vaporization of acetone in the tissues leads to a negative pressure, which draws the polymer into the empty spaces.
After the body is fully infused with the polymer, it’s posed as it will be in its final form and cured (with gas, UV light, or heat) according to what it’s infused with, and hardened in place.
Canadian artist Maskull Lasserre (previously featured here) has recently been “re-carving” mass-produced wooden souvenir sculptures and decoys to reveal intricate an skeletal system beneath each sculpture’s wooden skin.
Note the sinus cavities (maxillary and frontal) and curled nasal conchae (turbinates). The concae are spongy bones where inhaled air is moisturized and temperature-regulated, protecting the delicate olfactory epithelium.
For his ongoing series of anatomical sculptures, New York-based artist Jason Freeny (previously featured here) recently completed this fantastic dissection of Bugs Bunny. Bugs doesn’t seem to mind very much that he’s lost an eye and a good quarter of his skin and muscle have been peeled away. Then again, he’s always been a pretty insouciant, wascally rabbit. We’re also willing to bet that, could we see inside of it, his stomach would be full of well-crunched carrots.
While all muscles in a region are affected by a workout, when anaerobic workouts are undertaken, the superficial muscles are the ones that form the majority of the bulk that you see in hardcore athletes and bodybuilders.
There are deep “flat” muscles beneath the superficial layers in these regions, and below and lateral to those, there are the “long” muscles. These are all skeletal muscles - voluntary and striated. Surrounding the muscles is connective tissue, including the linea alba (the dividing line between the two halves of the abdomen), the fascia, and the aponeuroses. All of these consist of dense, fibrous connective tissue, and protect the body from intrusion, as well as protecting the muscles from each other, as they flex and relax in different directions.
Atlas and Text-Book of Human Anatomy. Dr. Johannes Sobotta, 1914