5

QUARANTINE!

Though often used as a synonym of “isolation" (where sick people are kept from well people), quarantine is technically defined as “to separate those suspected of exposure to an illness to see if they become ill” - hence the quarantine laws for livestock and pets when moving between countries, especially countries where rabies or hoof-and-mouth disease isn’t endemic.

These signs were posted on houses and farms that had a patient (and, as such, exposed family or herd members) infected with, from top to bottom, hoof-and-mouth disease, scarlet fever, diphtheria, smallpox, and poliomyelitis.

[Quaraintine]

The Hesse Family, circa 1875.

From left: (standing) Grand Duke Ludwig IV (holding May), Grand Duchess Alice

Princess Elizabeth, Prince Ernst-Ludwig, Princess Alix (on her mother’s lap), Princess Irene, and Princess Victoria. 

In 1878, the children came down with diphtheria. Alice nursed them herself. Little May died of the disease, and while telling the worried Prince Ernst-Ludwig that his sister had died, she thoughtlessly kissed him to comfort him. As a result, Alice contracted the disease herself and died soon after. Six-year-old Princess Alix never quite recovered from the early death of her beloved mother. Because of the early tragedies in her life, Alix later tried to make family life ideal for her husband and children. 

Source: Victoria’s Daughters by Jerrold M. Packard and Born to Rule by Julia P. Gelardi

4

DIPHTHERIA! KEEP OUT!

As with scarlet fever, diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) only becomes the dread disease that was quarantined and feared after it becomes infected with a toxin-producing bacteriophage (bacteria-infecting virus). You can be infected with an uninfected strain of C. diphtheriae and not develop any illness - the disease itself requires both the virus AND bacteria (well, one inside the other, of course).

When C. diphtheriae starts exuding toxins, it’s not surprising that the disease was so frightening. Those toxins enter the cells of the nasopharynx and inhibit protein synthesis, which eventually causes apoptosis (cell death), localized necrosis, and inflammation from the body’s response to the dead and dying cells.

The Strangling Death

The combination of those exotoxins, and the body’s response to the bacteria and affected epithelial cells, creates diphtheria’s strangling effects. Bluish skin, cough, difficult and painful swallowing, and rapid difficult breathing are all a result of the swelling and pseudomembrane formation in the throat.

Despite antitoxins, antibiotics, and incredibly sophisticated intensive care units, this disease still kills nearly 10% of all patients, and 20% of those under five or over forty. Diphtheria can kill either by strangulation or overloading the organs of the body with toxins; when adults die of the disease, toxin overload is more common than strangulation. Even when patients survive, heart damage from myocarditis and lingering pain from peripheral neuropathy can continue to cause problems for months or years.

Textbook of Pediatrics.
Julius Parker Sedgwick and Carl Ahrendt Scherer, 1922.

Photo by Aurelie Baumel/MSF

On the grounds of the Grand Mosque, Central African Republic, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) vaccinated 482 children, from 0 to 59 months, on Saturday, July 26, 2014. Depending on age, children received the pentavalent vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio) and a vaccination against measles, yellow fever and pneumonia.

Perhaps the greatest success story in public health is the reduction of infectious diseases resulting from the use of vaccines. Routine immunization has eradicated smallpox from the globe and led to the near elimination of wild polio virus. Vaccines have reduced some preventable infectious diseases to an all-time low, and now few people experience the devastating effects of measles, pertussis, and other illnesses. Prior to approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), vaccines are tested extensively by scientists to ensure they are effective and safe. Vaccines are the best defense we have against infectious diseases; however, no vaccine is 100% safe or effective. Differences in the way individual immune systems react to a vaccine account for rare occasions when people are not protected following immunization or when they experience side effects.

As the incidence of infectious diseases continues to decline, some people have become less interested in the consequences of preventable illnesses like diphtheria and tetanus. Instead, they have become increasingly concerned about the risks associated with vaccines. After all, vaccines are given to healthy individuals, many of whom are children, and therefore a high standard of safety is required. Since vaccination is such a common and memorable event, any illness following immunization may be attributed to the vaccine. While some of these reactions may be caused by the vaccine, many of them are unrelated events that occur after vaccination by coincidence. Therefore, the scientific research that attempts to distinguish true vaccine side effects from unrelated, chance occurrences is crucial. This knowledge is necessary to maintain public confidence in immunization programs. As science continues to advance, we strive to develop safer vaccines and improve delivery to protect ourselves against disease more effectively.

Credit: CDC

By the way, I’m 6’4” and weigh 220 pounds. Technically, I’m a “nasty BIG cunt.” Thanks for sharing you thoughtful message :)

Oral manifestations of childhood illnesses

1. Oral thrush - Caused by the Candida fungus overgrowing on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Also known as candidiasis when it occurs elsewhere on the body (such as vaginal candidiasis).
2. Varicella - Chicken pox. Have you ever had chicken pox in your mouth? It’s awful.
3. Stomatitis herpetica or Aphthosa [Herpetic stomatitis] - Caused by the same herpes infection of the mouth that causes cold sores, but blisters and mild ulceration can occur. This condition usually occurs when the child first contracts Herpes simplex I.
4. Stomatitis ulcerosa or Scorbutus - The oral manifestation of scurvy in children. The bone weakness, dry mouth, and immune dysfunction in scurvy often causes tooth weakening, loosening, and extreme gingivitis.
5. Follicular tonsillitis - The “standard” childhood tonsillitis, with infection of the palatine tonsils. If the infection doesn’t subside, removal of the tonsils is still the most common treatment.
6. Diphtheria - There are many oral manifestations of diphtheria, including “pseudo-membranes” covering the trachea, severely impairing breathing. The exotoxins exuded by Corynebacterium diphtherium can also cause thick, thrush-like patches in the pharyngotrachea.

Pediatrics: The Hygienic and and Medical Treatment of Children. Thomas Morgan Rotch, 1901.

Alexander (Sandie) Swift Pendleton- I Was Mortally Wounded At Fisher’s Hill

He was asked by General Stonewall Jackson to join his staff as an ordnance officer —- Jackson had known Pendleton from their days together in Lexington, where Jackson was a Professor at the Virginia Military Institute. Pendleton subsequently served as Jackson’s Assistant Adjutant General (Second Corps), and the relationship between Pendleton and Jackson was a close one— it was said that Jackson “loved him like a son.”

Following Jackson’s death at Chancellorsville in May 1863, Pendleton remained as AAG under General Richard S. Ewell and would later serve under Gen. Jubal A. Early. Pendleton married Kate Corbin in December 1863, and the newlyweds were expecting their first child when he was mortally wounded at Fisher’s Hill on September 22, 1864. He died on September 23, and in October his body was returned to Lexington for burial. Kate Corbin Pendleton gave birth to a son, Sandie, in November 1864. The child contracted diphtheria and died in September 1865.

http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=8165

trippin-purple said:

If you were vaccinated when you were little, you get the Dtap vaccine which is a preventative measure against diphtheria, along with tetanus and pertussis.

that’s why it’s a hypochondriacs book. It’s okay it just diagnosed me with lung cancer

2

MICHAEL LESY’S WISCONSIN DEATH TRIP

ONE OF THE STRANGEST AND MOST POWERFUL BOOKS OF AMERICAN HISTORY:  SUICIDES, FIRES, MADNESS, MURDER, LONELINESS, SATAN, SPELLS, AND DISEASE

"W.W. Crombie and wife, near Wrightsville, have lost 3 children within the past 3 weeks from diphtheria.  The oldest, a young lady 17 years of age, died last Friday.  Indeed they are sorely afflicted…[but] all their neighbors can do is extend sympathy from a distance.  Their house is quarantined."

1/16/1890/ Local News

"Polly and Ada died.  Life was teaching her methodically; this was the second lesson;  she was a strong woman and could learn.  On the day of the funeral the heat was broken by a thunderstorm.  The cheap little coffins were of the same length.  Rose, attended two other funerals that week, children’s funerals, saying, "It shall never be said that my sorrow has hardened me towards others.’"

Glenway Wescott, The Grandmothers, p. 58

 

 

During the last ten years, I have treated and cured all kinds of serious acute diseases without resorting to allopathic drugs. In a very extensive practice, I have not in all these years lost a single case of appendicitis (and not one of them was operated upon), of typhoid fever, diphtheria, smallpox, scarlet fever, etc., and only one case of cerebro-spinal meningitis and of lobar pneumonia. These facts may be verified from the records of the Health Department of the City of Chicago.
—  Nature Cure: Philosophy & Practice Based on the Unity of Disease & Cure by Henry Lindlahr, M.D., (Chapter 16: The Diphtheria Antitoxin)

While we’re at it…

If you want a “hero” from the Great Race of Mercy that wasn’t the native teams, here’s Togo and his handler, Leonhard Seppala.

"Balto" was a farce. Usurping amateur who did little work compared to Togo.

And to boot, the statue of Balto in Central Park is modeled after the real Balto, but every color and medal he wears was awarded to Togo. Officials and historians honored and knew Togo to be the real pack leader, who really deserved the praise. Roald Amundsen (of South Pole Expedition fame) even personally gave Togo a gold medal at Madison Square Gardens.

But that’s not what people see these days. Togo’s silent honor was easily overshadowed by a fame-hungry musher who couldn’t wait to be in photoshoot after tour stop after film after headlines. Balto’s owner/musher, Gunnar Kaasen, knew how to exploit this opportunity to its fullest. After the rescue run, he and his team toured around the country with Balto at the forefront, and told heroic tales of “Balto’s” triumphs, the majority of which were what Togo led his team through, and which Kaasen had overheard Seppala speak about.

Of course, none of that was Balto’s fault, and I feel sorry for the dog. Not only was he an amateur who wasn’t ready to lead a team in tough conditions up north, he was actually sold to a circus after Kaasen couldn’t milk anything else out of his appearances. He was malnourished and treated horribly there, before the children of Cleveland, OH found out, and had a fundraiser to bring Balto and his team to the local Zoo to live out their retirement.

Here’s a source or two on the topic, but most of this is from old newspapers and accounts, as well as the Iditarod Museum.

Although whooping cough was once a national scourge, killing more than 1,100 in 1950, decades of immunizations — the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine and its forerunners — almost eliminated the disease. Only six Americans died of pertussis in 1995. Alas, an epidemic has arrived. (One case of pertussis typically can cause at least a dozen secondary transmissions because it is so communicable. Antibiotics do little to ameliorate the symptoms, except to shorten the period of infectiousness.) Medical officials are increasingly alarmed — especially here in L.A. No other county in California has more cases: 1,317 so far this year. “It’s a smoldering fire that has started and it could be a complete wildfire if vaccination rates continue to fall,” says Dr. Deborah Lehman, associate director of pediatric infectious diseases at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.

And it’s not just pertussis. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the number of domestic measles cases is at a 20-year high. About half of the cases in California involve unvaccinated patients.
vax_chart

Whether it’s measles or pertussis, the local children statistically at the greatest risk for infection aren’t, as one might imagine, the least privileged — far from it. An examination by The Hollywood Reporter of immunization records submitted to the state by educational facilities suggests that wealthy Westside kids — particularly those attending exclusive, entertainment-industry-favored child care centers, preschools and kindergartens — are far more likely to get sick (and potentially infect their siblings and playmates) than other kids in L.A. The reason is at once painfully simple and utterly complex: More parents in this demographic are choosing not to vaccinate their children as medical experts advise. They express their noncompliance by submitting a form known as a personal belief exemption (PBE) instead of paperwork documenting a completed shot schedule.

I really don’t understand this movement to not vaccinate your children and in an overall thing the rich’s rejection of healthcare.

There are people that fight their entire lives to get healthcare and there are people that having passing it up for “authentic” vaccine free lifestyles, homeopathic healing, and home birth. You are so rich you just say fuck the doctor and give birth to kid at home by yourself without a second thought while i seen people scrapping cash together for a three day stay in the hospital.

Attention “anti-vaxxers”. Here is something for you.

" Whooping cough was once a national scourge, killing more than 1,100 in 1950, decades of immunizations — the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis) vaccine and its forerunners — almost eliminated the disease. Only six Americans died of pertussis in 1995."

"An examination by The Hollywood Reporter of immunization records submitted to the state by educational facilities suggests that wealthy Westside kids — particularly those attending exclusive, entertainment-industry-favored child care centers, preschools and kindergartens — are far more likely to get sick (and potentially infect their siblings and playmates) than other kids in L.A. The reason is at once painfully simple and utterly complex: More parents in this demographic are choosing not to vaccinate their children as medical experts advise. They express their noncompliance by submitting a form known as a personal belief exemption (PBE) instead of paperwork documenting a completed shot schedule.”

[x]

Diphtheria Antitoxin - 1895

Diphtheria is a killer by the toxins it excretes, which can cause necrosis, myocarditis, and, most dangerously, the putrid-smelling pseudo-membrane that can line the pharynx and trachea, preventing breathing.

Antitoxins were the first solution to these toxins. Antibodies against the toxin were taken from the serum of large animals (horses) who were inoculated with the toxin produced by the C. diphtheriae bacteria. The amount of toxin was small enough that it only produced an immune reaction in the animal, and did not poison them.

When someone contracted diphtheria, the antitoxin could be injected, and this inactivated the circulating toxin created by the bacteria. While it did not kill the bacteria itself, the immune system was capable of doing that on its own when it wasn’t busy being dissolved and ripped apart by the toxins. Unfortunately, the antitoxin could not inactivate toxins created by bacteria that were already bound to tissues, so the earlier it was administered, the better.

Combined with the refinement of the tracheotomy (so that patients could breathe, even with a pseudo-membrane covering their airway), the antitoxin dropped the mortality rate of diphtheria from 40-45% down to around 12-15%. 

Image: Production of antitoxin by inoculation of horses. One of the first bottles of antitoxin produced at the Hygienic Lab, later known as the National Institutes of Health.

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