FRANCE, Paris : A woman holds up a placard that reads in French, “I am Charlie” as she and others gather at the Place de la Republique in the French capital Paris, on January 7, 2015, following an attack by unknown gunmen on the offices of the satirical weekly, Charlie Hebdo. France’s Muslim leadership sharply condemned the shooting at the Paris satirical weekly that left at least 12 people dead as a “barbaric” attack and an assault on press freedom and democracy. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET



Lead and potassium switch dance partners in this double displacement reaction commonly called the Golden Rain demonstration. The first part involves dripping potassium iodide into a solution of lead(II) nitrate to form potassium nitrate and lead(II) iodide (top). The shimmering golden crystals are lead iodide, which has very low solubility in cold water.

However, lead iodide’s solubility goes up dramatically with temperature. So in the second part, the mixture is heated and everything goes into solution. As the flask cools back down (bottom), the lead iodide forms larger crystals of higher purity that rain down through the water. 

To learn more about this reaction and see it set to music, check out this video.

Credit: Chemistry in Context


If you didn’t know, Silat was developed to basically ruin an opponent. Many Indonesian armed forces used it to maim, severely injure and kill their enemies. It’s not a martial art meant to incapacitate an attacker in order for you to run away. It’s meant to make it so the attacker wants to run away…but can’t…because his knees have been snapped.

Here are some demonstrations of Silat’s simple and yet highly vicious (some of them at least) joint dislocation, bone breaking and takedown techniques.
Note how, in the fourth example, he steps down on his opponent’s foot and then pushes his arm up into the joint. That is not a fun position to be in. He’s literally making his opponent decided whether he forsakes the use of his arm or the use of his foot as if he steps back to relieve his shoulder/arm, he probably breaks his ankle. But, in the time it takes to decide and react, he follows up the hold with a kick in the balls anyway.

Another key element is being able to transition from hold to hold (last gif). Here he hits with an elbow to the arm joint - weakening it substantially - controls the arm by bringing it down and around and then with a cheeky, controlling nudge of the shoulder joint brings him into a full arm lock.
His opponent could choose to use his other hand to attack but with his head at perfect knee height, he’d probably be unconscious within seconds if he tried.

I’m not trying to give an obnoxious play-by-pay here. I’m just trying to emphasize the minutiae of the style, no matter how simple.
Bodies are easily controlled if you have the knowledge. Certain joints just aren’t meant to go certain ways and, with the right pressure, no matter how minimal, a person’s body can be manipulated…and ultimately put down.