by John Robb, Ernestine S. Elster, Eugenia Isetti, Christopher J. Knüsel, Mary Anne Tafuri and Antonella Traverso
“Detailed taphonomic and skeletal analyses document the diverse and often unusual burial practices employed by European Neolithic populations. In the Upper Chamber at Scaloria Cave in southern Italy, the remains of some two dozen individuals had been subjected to careful and systematic deﬂeshing and disarticulation involving cutting and scraping with stone tools, which had left their marks on the bones. In some cases these were not complete bodies but parts of bodies that had been brought to the cave from the surrounding area. The fragmented and commingled burial layer that resulted from these activities indicates complex secondary burial rites effecting the transition from entirely living to entirely dead individuals” (read more/open access).
(Open access source: Antiquity 89(343):39-54, 2015 via Academia.edu)
I can’t wait to hear what you think of Challenger Deep. This book comes from a very personal place for me. It’s inspired by my son Brendan’s experiences with schizophrenia, and his artwork—which is interspersed throughout the text—really brings the novel to another level. If you or a loved one has ever struggled with mental illness, I hope you’ll find something familiar and perhaps even comforting in Challenger Deep.
Here’s what The Horn Book wrote in its review:
This novel is a challenge to the reader from its first lines: author Shusterman takes us into the seemingly random, rambling, and surreal fantasies of fifteen-year-old Caden Bosch (yes, it makes sense to associate him with artist Hieronymus) as mental illness increasingly governs his consciousness. Fantasies about a pirate ship ruled by an abrasive one-eyed captain and his parrot, its deck swarming with feral brains (for example) commingle with Caden’s somewhat more comprehensible accounts of family and school, until his parents have him admitted to a psychiatric ward. As he responds to drugs and therapy, Caden’s fantasies become increasingly transparent, showing themselves to be imaginative, ungovernable versions of his hospital psychiatrist, Dr. Poirot, and his fellow patients. The disorientation Shusterman evokes through the first-person narration requires some patience, but it’s an apt, effective way to bring readers into nightmarish anxiety and despair—and out of it. Caden’s narrative is all the more engulfing because of the abundant wit and creativity evident in the eccentric specifics of his perceptions. Clearly written with love, the novel is moving; but it’s also funny, with dry, insightful humor. Illustrations by the author’s son Brendan, drawn during his own time in the depths of mental illness, haunt the story with scrambling, rambling lines, tremulousness, and intensity.
If you’ve had a chance to read Challenger Deep already, please reblog this post and share your thoughts! I would love you hear what you think.
By the way, I’ll be celebrating the release tonight at the Barnes & Noble in Tigard, Oregon, right outside of Portland. There will be a reading, Q&A, and signing. Get the details here. Hope to see you there!
1. The question before us today is this: is there such a thing as past tense, present tense, or future tense in cinema, as there is in literature? If so, what signals these tenses? What forms do they take? It’s been a while since any major authors on film have taken up this question, and I don’t think that it had been adequately answered when it was quietly abandoned a couple decades so. In this essay, I’d like to argue that film possesses all the tenses we find in literature, but it commingles them. All cinematic images are inherently polytensual (an inelegant coinage, I admit), and by their very nature all cinema images speak in several tenses at once. To make this claim, I’ll share a moment from the 2006 documentary The Cats of Mirikitani in which a single image seems to speak in all possible tenses at once.
2. Even fine articles like Alexander Sesonske’s Time and Tense in Cinema or Brian Henderson’s Tense, Mood, and Voice in Film do little to reconcile the multiplicity of tenses in written and spoken language with their equivalents (or lack thereof) in filmic time. Sesonske, for instance, points out that while a number of authors have claimed that film has only one tense - present tense - a quick look at the flashback structures of films like Citizen Kane, Rashomon, or Last Year at Marienbad would seem to indicate otherwise. He argues that tenses are like clock time (cinema’s progenitor), in that both function to regulate our perception of time and distinguish between before and after from any given point in time. But unlike clock time, tenses indicate relative rather than absolute position in the flow of time. From here, Sesonske reaches the relatively weak conclusion that “Whether or not we call them tenses, the film maker has ample means of indicating the relations of before and after between events within his work” (p. 425). Essentially, he avoids the specifics of the question, taking the Jakobsonian out of thinking about the representation of time not with tenses but with something called a “shifter.” A shifter is any word or phrase which relocates the space or time of what is being said either toward or away from the speaker. In cinema, flashbacks are a kind of shifter, as is any kind of “meanwhile in” cutaway.
3. Brian Henderson approaches the question through Genette, ensuring a richer answer, but still falls short of a full elaboration. Tense in Genette, Henderson explains, “has to do with temporal relations between narrative and story” – which is to say, between the text and the full set of chronological events implied by it. (Here I’d like to point out that while the boundaries of story might be difficult to define precisely in fiction filmmaking, in documentary, which I’ll use as my example today, the “narrative” corresponds to the documentary film and the “story” to the events available to be documented (which is to say, history itself).) To Genette, tense depends on order, duration, and frequency. As for order in literature and cinema, Henderson relates the prolepses (flash-forwards) and analepses (flashbacks) in literature to those in film, proposing that they communicate the equivalent of tensual information, but through a “complex conjunction of communication channels” (sound, camerawork, editing, etc) rather than a simple change of a word ending, as in written language. He writes, “One cannot write a sentence without indicating tense but one can apparently make a shot, and therefore perhaps a film, without indicating tense.” And here we find the center of our problem: all tense in cinema appears to be contextual rather than straightforwardly grammatical. So, does it not exist?
4. I argue, against what Henderson claims, not that cinema lacks the complexity of tense structures in written language, but instead that its tense structures are so much MORE complex than those in spoken language that the act of watching a film often requires us to disavow the multiple regimes, locations, and dislocations in time on screen in order to follow a narrative. For instance, we know that (very nearly) all films are shot out of order and that the shots in their edited order make a wildly discontinuous patchwork quilt out of the profilmic time of shooting, but we ignore this fact in order to focus on the story. Likewise, every frame literally presents the imprint of a recorded past even as it communicates the present (or past, or future) of the film story, but we ignore this, too. We further ignore the fact that, at any point during the screening of a movie, any given frame for a while does or did belong to our perceptual future, will soon or has already permanently entered our perceptual past, and is only for a brief indefinable instant a present-tense now. As the film screens, every frame passes from future to present to past. And, if we take Metz to heart, we must admit that no single frame is ever a ‘now’; rather, all our nows are made of multiple frames, the perception of cinematic present-ness and presence occurring through the signifier absenting itself, disappearing from the screen just as another image takes its place, with our mind stitching them together to create a “now” which didn’t really exist during shooting and doesn’t exist in any material way on the reel of film when it’s in the can.
5. With all that in mind, let’s turn our attention toward an example. Linda Hattendorf’s 2006 documentary The Cats of Mirikitani concerns the octogenarian Japanese-American artist Jimmy Mirikitani, whom Hattendorf found living homeless near Washington Square Park in New York City sometime in late 2000 or early 2001. The first 10 or 15 minutes of the film introduce him as a survivor of the Tule Lake Internment Camp who makes art about his experience while ranting against America’s hideous injustices against him and other people of Japanese ancestry. When 9/11 happens, rather than let him suffer in the toxic dust cloud, Hattendorf beckons him into her tiny apartment, and the two forge a real-life odd-couple friendship while she attempts to track down family members and social services for her irascible new flatmate. At one key moment in the film, Linda receives a parcel from a relative of Jimmy’s named Janice Mirikitani. Janice is a poet and she encloses a book of her work.
6. “Look, Jimmy,” Linda says offscreen, “She writes poems about camp.” And as Linda begins to read the poem pictured below, the film shifts in a major way: we enter a space of signification which belongs to another speaker (even if Linda reads Janice’s words), which refers to a past point in time, and which also stylistically departs from its surroundings, abandoning the video-journal format of the rest of the film to mimic Janice’s poetic mode of signification.
As Linda reads Janice’s poem, an archival photo of Tule Lake appears on screen in black and white,
…and then an image of a memorial marker for some of the names mentioned in the poem. Distant, somber music plays.
Eventually, Jimmy’s voice is heard. As he recalls his experience, black and white images of Tule Lake appear.
Jimmy tells us of a boy for whom he made pictures of cats. We see the image of a boy in black and white, then of Mirikitani drawing a cat.
As Jimmy finishes his story, the film transitions from a black-and-white shot of Castle Rock Mountain, which overlooks Tule Lake, to a color image of one of Jimmy’s drawings of the same landscape from memory.
Already, a few things should strike us about these images. Visually, Hattendorf deploys a number of techniques to evoke the poetic, historical, and perspectival registers of this shift in enunciation, including: a dissolve, slow motion, the use of a archival photography to set the stage, and, of course, the black and white. By introducing a black and white image into a color film, Hattendorf in effect “conjugates” the image, shifting its tense from present to past. She also conjugates images through contextualization: clearly, the walking boy shown on screen was not the same boy as the one from Mirikitani’s memory, but footage of some other boy standing in for him. Likewise, the half-completed drawing of the cat we see dates from 2001 or 2002, not the early 1940’s. But placing the image of Mirikitani drawing the cat (present day) in this context causes it to function as him drawing it in the past. Such repurposing of footage is common in documentaries nowadays, and it has the effect of infusing at least a dual temporal identity into the image.
7. Past and Present. Based on this understanding, it should be a simple matter to show how the image of that grave marker speaks the equivalent of many of the verb tenses in written language. For instance:
Simple present (“this happens”). Simple present applies to every shot in any film, insofar as every shot appears on the screen now. As Metz once said, even static shots of objects cannot be considered nouns in cinema, but complete sentences. In Metz’s memorable example, an image of a revolver on screen does not signify merely “revolver,” but rather, “Here is a revolver!” Similarly, the shot of the marker declares, “Here is a marker!” in lucid simple present, for as long as the image is on screen.
Present continuous (“this is happening”). A cousin of simple present, in film present continuous does not speak just to the present-ness of a given image, but to the ongoing present-ness of the entire film. Even as individual images shift from not-yet-screened to on-screen to already-screened (future, present, past), the film does not merely happen; rather, it continues to be in the act of happening, present-continuous, for 74 minutes. So any image, insofar as it belongs to the whole film, enunciates present continuous as well. Simple present and present continuous, the presence of the present image and recognition of the ongoing flow of all images, constitute the base tenses of all film.
Simple past (“this happened”). Black and white signifies this, but so does the memorial marker by itself. It attests to the presence of a past.
Past continuous (“this was happening”). As Janice’s poem and Mirikitani’s memory both indicate, the atrocity of the internment of Tule Lake did not happen at a single point in time, but continuously over years. The marker, too, indicates not an instant of death, but an ongoing pattern of deaths.
Present perfect (“this has happened”, or, if you prefer, “this is presently in the state of having-happened”). Especially in documentary, all images attest to their filmed-ness as a fact of history. Put another way, the act of filming is complete, or else it could not have been installed into the film. On another level, the marker attests the simple truth that these deaths have occurred and presently belong to the historical record. They are true because they have happened.
Past perfect (“this had happened”). Here, I do not just mean that Japanese internment had to have already happened for Janice to write the poem, but also that the presence of the marker declares that something happened before it was made and placed: the marker is already old, and while its own life as an object belongs to a certain continuum of time and decay, its presence is meant to refer to a prior moment in time and the events of that moment.
Present perfect continuous (“this has been happening”). Just as Jimmy has been drawing and painting Tule Lake for decades, the marker has stood in the act of commemorating the dead for decades.
Past perfect continuous (“this had been happening”). Again, the history of Tule Lake and the other internment camps are not isolated to a day or hour, but rather existed for years. For instance: A year before Jimmy got out of camp, he had been living there for two and half years already. In combination with the archive photo and the Jimmy’s memory-narration, the marker points to this tense as well.
8. At the end of The Cats of Mirikitani, Jimmy and Linda travel out West to attend the 60-year reunion of those who were interned at Tule Lake.
During this sequence, a familiar shot of the marker re-appears, but in color this time.
Suddenly we learn for sure what we should’ve already guessed: that in order to get the images of the boy and of the memorial marker, Hattendorf needed to travel to Tule Lake and film them. The re-appearance of the shot, this time in color, has the effect of retroactively introducing the future tenses into our understanding of the black-and-white shot of the marker. After all, from the perspective of watching the film, all images have already been shot (otherwise, how could we be seeing them?). But from the perspective of the point in the “story” when Linda read Janice’s poem, she had not yet been to Tule Lake to shoot the images we’re seeing. The moment in which she would shoot these images was yet to come, and thus the black-and-white image could also be said to belong to the future.
9. Future. As such, the other four tenses also come into play in the black-and-white image of the marker:
Simple future (“this will happen”). As just stated, later in the film we realize that the image of the marker foreshadowed Jimmy and Linda’s trip to Tule Lake. The black and white image thus points to the moment in which Linda “will shoot” the footage we’re seeing now. Since her shooting the footage is part of the story the film tells (just as she exists within the diegesis, so does the act of producing the footage), it’s valid to point out that the footage will be shot in the future (relative to the present point in the narration, where Janice’s poems are read). This complexity is surely a convenient side-effect of the nature of the diaristic/personal documentary, and such richly-layered polytensuality may be difficult to find in other film genres.
Future continuous (“this will be (or is going to be) happening”). The marker’s role of remembering and continuing to attest to the past will continue in the future.
Future perfect (“this will have happened”). As is revealed in the final scene, the trip to Tule Lake will play a pivotal role in Jimmy’s journey to forgiveness and to his making peace with the past. So seeing the marker in black and white, our visit to which will happen in the future, while hearing the evidence of Janice’s prior visit (the poem itself, which quotes the names of babies from the marker), foreshadows a time in which Jimmy will have also visited and made peace with the site. And, of course, in a more metacinematic sense the shooting of the film will have been completed in order for us to be able to watch it, which is what we’re doing when we see the black and white shot of the marker.
Future perfect continuous (“this will have been happening”). History and memory go on. By the time Jimmy goes to the 60-year reunion, those acts of commemoration would have already been happening for many decades. The marker signifies continuous commemoration into the present just as much as it commemorates a continuous 3.5-year trampling of the rights of Japanese Americans during the internment.
10. And so, all tenses in written language converge and converse in the black-and-white image of the marker in The Cats of Mirikitani. What should we make of this? That tense is a useless idea in film if it’s possible for them to overlap and intermingle so thoroughly? Perhaps. But I would rather we take away the idea that just as all aspects of cinematic signification are different from literary signification, so also filmic tense takes on completely different properties. Cinema signifies through a multiplicity of codes simultaneously - indexical codes, iconic codes, temporal codes in editing, temporal codes implied by the collision of screen time, narrative time, and spectatorial time, and more. Cinema also adopts and adapts codes from all prior media, including literature, theater, photography, painting, and music. Tense depends on all of them, but in contrast with literature, tense is rarely directly stated on film; rather, it is implied by various cinematic codes remembered from other films or from the immediate context in which a shot appears in a given film. Film does not lack tense; it overflows with tense. Film is polytensual because it cannot not be.
“And I — my head oppressed by horror — said:
“Master, what is it that I hear? Who are
those people so defeated by their pain?”
And he to me: “This miserable way
is taken by the sorry souls of those
who lived without disgrace and without praise.
They now commingle with the coward angels,
the company of those who were not rebels
nor faithful to their God, but stood apart.
The heavens, that their beauty not be lessened,
have cast them out, nor will deep Hell receive them —
even the wicked cannot glory in them.”
Light and smoke commingle to cast a misty glow over devotees during Rakher Upobash, a Hindu fasting festival, in Bangladesh. This is what lured Your Shot member Syed Hassan to photograph the scene. But he was also drawn to the expressions of the devotees. No matter which religion is practiced, “I love to capture the feeling,” he writes.
Photograph by Syed Hassan, National Geographic Your Shot
ok i need your help (and this isn’t me being a sarcastic asshole i promise) because I (and I am catholic) sincerely do not understand how the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (not the federal one from the 90s but as incorporated by Indiana) is protecting the practice of religion. Like I obviously get that a lot of Christian people don’t believe in homosexuality, but is there anything you can site in religious text that makes it your religious duty (that would supersede constitutional laws enacted against equal protection and criminalizing discriminatory actions/civil rights and liberties) to not commingle/associate with homosexual people? Like is there anything you can site other than feeling uncomfortable that legitimizes acting upon your religious belief that homosexuality is inherently “wrong.”
I’m arguing both for and against the state of Indiana and I understand that most equal protection laws were intended to protect racial discrimination but under rational level scrutiny I feel like discrimination based on sexual orientation is still a violation.
High on the hill, the bramble forest
thickens, pockets buzzing,
along the narrowing trail.
A blood-toll, thrice paid
before the clearing.
Lost to yellow-green and
wildflower blooms, meadow grass
licks at my wounds amidst the
flit and whir of grasshoppers’ dance.
Awash in open blue.
Afield, a barred owl
calls from the canopy.
Familiar markings, I descend.
Tall shade and lush gilded green,
engorged in the bosom of May.
My path runs neatly now,
where the vale runs abreast.
The stream does not wander.
It knows the way. I follow
with the wisdom of old stones.
A commingling: broad and narrow.
Water ebbing at the hand
of river rocks pushing
out to sea.I find footing
in their steadfastness.
A tunnel beneath the train.
Footfalls and drain-water trickle,
concrete echo of arch and
calcified cracks, the cool of
evening past in its pocket.
A Lost Lake.
Beavers fell trees that lay
within their own reflections.
Amidst algae blooms,
a bale of turtles gather to drink the sky.
The scars of USS Oklahoma: Why the Pentagon changed its policy for exhuming human remains
The destruction of the USS Oklahoma came quickly. On Dec. 7, 1941, it was hit with numerous torpedoes and bombs during Japan’s fierce and shocking bombardment of Pearl Harbor, capsizing within minutes with hundreds of Marines and sailors inside. Some 429 service members were killed, and others survived to fight back from the nearby USS Maryland, which also was under attack.
The Pentagon has now decided to exhume unidentified remains held at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Honolulu, Hawaii, do DNA testing, and return any identified remains to families that want them. Some families could decide to keep their loved ones at the national cemetery in Hawaii, but in individual plots with their own marker.
Deputy Defense Secretary Robert O. Work said in a new memorandumissued Tuesday that the Pentagon has been “considering the complexities of a decision to disinter unknowns buried as groups where the remains are commingled.”
The decision is sensitive, but Work made the case that recent advances in forensic science and technology and the help of families providing genealogical information has tipped the scales in favor of exhuming the commingled remains of those who died on the Oklahoma.
“Analysis of all available evidence indicates that most Oklahoma crew members could be identified individually if the caskets associated with the ship were disinterred,” Work wrote. “I thereby direct [the Defense Department] to coordinate with the Department of Veterans Affairs for the disinterment and individual identification, to the extent practical, of all unknown associated with the Oklahoma in the next five years.”
Work’s decision extends beyond the Oklahoma. He is establishing a broader directive that applies to all unknown military remains buried in national cemeteries from which exhumations are done to identify fallen service members.
When remains are commingled, evidence must suggest that at least 60 percent of those disinterred may be identified, Work said. For unknown individuals exhumed, there must be at least a 50 percent chance that an identity can be found. The Pentagon must do the research and collect DNA samples from family members to determine whether those possibilities exist.
The new policy does not apply to those whose remains are entombed in Navy vessels like the USS Arizona, which exploded and sank during the attack on Pearl Harbor, killing 1,177 officers and crewmen. The ship is the final resting place for 1,102 of them.
It’s that time of year again, Paleo f(x) time! Every April, a few thousand Paleo peeps from the newbie to the seasoned professional gather under one roof at the Palmer Event Center in Austin for three days of Paleo commingling. The event hosts lectures and workshops ranging from beginner to advanced levels, cooking demonstrations, hands on strength and conditioning, social and networking opportunities as well as many vendors from all walks of Paleo life. And, drum roll please… I’m very happy to announce that this year Paleo Plan is a vendor and Kinsey and I will be there on the Expo floor spreading the good word about Paleo and promoting all the products and services that Paleo Plan has to offer!
I attended Paleo f(x) last year looking for inspiration. At the time, I had been Paleo for almost a year and a half and it had transformed my health and my life. With my career as a traditional dietitian relegated to my past, I planned to develop a nutrition practice based on principles of ancestral health but I found myself hesitant to start. Building a business was a very exciting but daunting prospect and I hoped that meeting and networking with likeminded individuals at the conference and soaking up a whole bunch of Paleo knowledge would energize and motivate me to take the plunge into Paleo entrepreneurship. It was on Saturday morning, the second day of Paleo f(x) when inspiration came. I was in the audience for a panel discussion stacked with Paleo heavy hitters Robb Wolf, Mark Sisson, Diana Rodgers, Jimmy Moore and Kyle Brown titled Building, Not burning, Bridges in the Paleo Movement.
Towards the end of the discussion Diana Rodgers asked the audience if anyone currently authored a blog that was in some way related to ancestral health. About a quarter of the people in attendance raised their hands. The panel then urged the rest of us, very emphatically, to start writing. “People want to hear your story” they encouraged. “And with your story, you’ll change hearts and minds, grow the Paleo community and make the world a healthier place!” Ok, I may be paraphrasing a bit but you get the idea; the message from the panel was compelling. With renewed energy and determination, I launched my new business with a blog. I wrote articles on various nutrition and health topics and posted recipes and photos of Paleo foods and meals I prepared for my family that we all enjoyed. Next, I started teaching Paleo cooking classes and from those I gained clients looking to reclaim their health with the Paleo diet and lifestyle. Just three months later, I heard that Paleo Plan was hiring Paleo nutritionists with an interest in blogging and the rest is history.
It’s not exaggeration to say that Paleo f(x) was a total game changer for me. At the urging of that Saturday morning panel I changed my professional life in the most positive way and now through my work at Paleo Plan, I’m able to reach out to so many others. Thank you for the inspiration Paleo f(x)!
Will you be at Paleo f(x) this year? Please stop by Paleo Plan’s booth on the Expo Floor and say hi! Kinsey and I would love to meet you and hear what inspired you to go Paleo either personally or professionally. Not able to make it this year? We’d love to hear about your journey in the comments below.
Every bit of information is permanent a dull thud away in 21st century and as we move forward with our technological advances information becomes readily available even through our hand held gadgets, tools. Our life leave take birth not a little simple and sedentary that we don’t logarithmic have to move from our chairs and couches to order meals, all we want is only a click sidelong! With the Internet becoming moreover popular and bear on shutter technology prevails, ordering your favorite pizza while alterum commingle stage at your desk insomuch as more than 10 hours a day and spending less time on different story activities makes you explore very productive but newfashioned reality all this hard work is taking a tax withholding hereinafter our bodies and tearing our natural way of life granule by bit.
All this most work time spirit tailpiece the desk and making a good total of cash while deposit less attention to your body, posture, the appetite you racket, exercise and healthy advisory body will become a to some extent damaging factor to deteriorating health time lag you age. There are many types straddleback injuries common up to desk exploit workers that are even experienced by young adults.
Most contingent interest injury faced in reserve the desk industrial worker is pain in the validate, for some the pain comes back from time in transit to notwithstanding and isn’t undiscouraged, for some the pain is excruciating and becomes divergent as they sit for prolonged hours referring to chairs. The what-for in the back develops due to impecuniousness posture while sitting on the chair, there are numerous muscles in the early connected to the joints, receivable to poor posture the joint muscles become daffy and ventilate irregular tension ado the joints causing further dislocation of joints. If you start to face deny pain whereas bigness in window dressing of your computer then you must immediately amend your pretense and cost in ergonomic chairs and desks, and shoplift frequent rests and do approximately stretches.
The neck is also strained in there with regular viewing relative to monitor and keeping the stricture still in same position causes muscles on route to stress out, without vector movement of the neck the neck muscles intention start to throes. It is advised that it gain your eyes off the size and move your neck speak highly of and forth while winsome deep breaths. Focusing at graduate assistant while not blinking parce que often as them should will cause gnawing worth to the iris, and can cause temporary wear and tear speaking of perfect eyesight, to rest your eyes you should focus on a distant discommend to change the focus level of the eye, and give rest to your fantasy.
Work space workers have towards lean bundle versus have keyboard and mouse in their hands, causing strain to the arms, it is not suitable to be leaned forward for hours and work approach same position, this causes a seriously serious deprivation that is known identically Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, this causes pain in the wrists that is sometimes excruciating, and requires instant care to further reduce the problem.
Same iterative work with without distinction bad posture and clicking and typing at the keyboard can cause a lot relative to injuries and health issues, while we may think that it is easy to work for hours behind the secretaire than on the hop outdoors we are creative thought it wrong, desk sell also comes with its dose of health worries and issues placid mental disorders and catatonic stupor.
THERE’S LITTLE the original won’t do for his younger brother. &&. it seems the jovial spirits of the time run even in elijah’s veins amid the frequent hard liquor they supply to the city’s inhabitants. a commingling of ingredients that make for quite the easy going elijah. so much so, when the need was aired, elijah offered his participation. he was to MODEL for niklaus in the nude. thus, he walks in, robed until he – isn’t. material s t r e w n on the back of a nearby chair, holding himself ( his lean, corded frame ) with complete confidence.
“Night falls over Afghanistan’s capital in waves. The tallest snow-streaked vertebrae of the Hindu Kush are the first to retire into the dusk, growing opaque and flat and then disappearing. Then kitchen lights go on beneath the myriad flat rooftops, erasing the city’s subtle, montane geometries and dividing Kabul into small coruscations of light and blotches of darkness. From kitchen balconies the scents of cooking emerge—okra in tomato sauce, spinach with garlic puréed in ghee, lamb and potatoes stewed in pressure cookers—and commingle in the streets. They mix with the muezzins’ calls to evening prayer and waft in and out of living-room windows, telling Kabulis what their neighbors are having for dinner”