1. The Guardian of the Seraglio, 1878 by Eduard Charlemont

2. The Prayer , 1865 by Jean-Léon Gérôme

3. Babylonian marriage market 1875 by Edwin Long

4.  A Moorish Bath, 1870 by Jean-Léon Gérôme

5. The 1798 Egyptian Expedition Under the Command of Bonaparte, 1835 by Léon Cogniet

6. The Day after a Victory at the Alhambra, 1882 by Jean Joseph Benjamin Constant

7. The Women of Algiers, 1834 by Eugène Delacroix

8. Market in Jaffa, 1887 by Gustav Bauernfeind

9. Slaves for Sale, 1873 by Jean-Léon Gérôme


Amalia Lindegren’s idyllic childhood paintings were a far cry from her own early days. She was born on May 22, 1814 in Stockholm. The death of her mother left her a destitute at the age of three and the widow of her biological father became her custodian. Though surrounded by affluence, her position in the family of her foster parent was humiliating. She received a good enough education appropriate for the girls of that time and practised charcoal paintings at her home. A chance acquaintance with sculptor Carl Gustaf Qvarnström opened the gateway of the world of art for her.

Amalia Lindegren became the first woman from her country to receive a scholarship for studying art in Paris. She received training in the studios of such French artists as Léon Cogniet. Besides, she studied in Düsseldorf and Munich before proceeding to Rome. Indeed her skills were much influenced by the Düsseldorf school of painting. She became an established artist by the time of her return to Stockholm in 1856. Her paintings of contented domestic scenes were much in demand. She was awarded Litteris et Artibus in Sweden and became members of Royal Swedish Academy of Arts and British Female Artists Society before her death on December 27, 1891.

“Massacre of the Innocents” (1824) by Léon Cogniet (French, 1794-1880) According to the bible, Herod the Great, the Roman appointed King of the Jews, ordered the execution of all young male children in and around the city of Bethlehem, so as to avoid the loss of his throne to a newborn King of the Jews whose birth had been announced to him by the Magi. Contemporary estimates are that some 1000 people were in the area at the time, which would statistically mean some 20 infants, not some huge biblical spectacle often portrayed. Cogniet paints an extremely intimate picture – the stark depiction of a terrified mother about to lose her child. While medieval and renaissance painters showed head-hacking, skull-bashing and infant-tossing, Cogniet shows only the fear of a nameless woman and her child.

Cogniet was a French historical and portrait painter. He decorated several ceilings in the Louvre and the Halle de Godiaque in the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and a chapel in the Church of the Madeleine