On an Island north of Siberia, frozen remains of a mammoth have been discovered with blood that is STILL liquid! The 10,000-year-old beast was found on one of the Lyakhovsky Islands in the Novosibirsk archipelago off the northern coast of Siberia. Researchers from the Northeastern Federal University in Yakutsk poked the remains with an ice pick and, incredibly, blood flowed out.
Since the temperature during excavation was -7 to -10 degrees celsius, the scientist say that “It may be assumed that the blood of mammoths had some cryoprotective properties”. How fucking awesome is that!?
Turkish multimedia artist Erdal Inci experiments with cloned motion in video to create awesomely hypnotic looping videos and gifs of himself moving through public spaces, sometimes carrying lights or other objects. Depending on the exposure, Inci sometimes appears to be no more than a shadow or isn’t visible at all, making his videos even more mysterious and dreamlike.
He states: “I realized that if you clone a recorded performance contiguously it will become perpetual. So that you can see all the time phases of the same performance in a small amount of time like 1 or 2 seconds. This gives you the chance of thinking like a choreographer with a mass crew or painter who fills its frame not in forms and colour but motion. At this point I could tell I am inspired by patterns in traditional arts & crafts , dance and repetition. Motion, performance and real environments are the outlines of the work.”
Check out more of Erdal Inci’s mesmerizing video art (and at much higher resolution) over on Vimeo, Facebook or Instagram.
They say the frozen remains of a female mammoth were so well-preserved that blood was found in ice cavities when they were broken up.
Semyon Grigoryev, the head of the Mammoth Museum who led the expedition, said Thursday the carcass was preserved because its lower part was stuck in pure ice. He said the find could provide scientific material for cloning a mammoth. (SEMYON GRIGORYEV/AFP/Getty Images)
PTI: Scientists have for the first time cloned a mouse from a single drop of blood.
Researchers used circulating blood cells collected from the tail of a donor mouse to produce the clone. The female mouse cloned from a peripheral leukocyte proved to be fertile by natural mating, and lived for a normal lifespan, researchers said.
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, devised a technique to avoid the diminishing returns of recloning the same cell. Success rates increased from the standard three per cent in first-generation clones to ten per cent in first-generation and 14 per cent in higher-generation clones, researchers said.
Remember Dolly the Sheep? Having started her life in a test tube in 1996, she was the first animal cloned by scientists using a somatic cell (as distinct, say from a germline cell, or “gamete,” like sperm and eggs). Dolly was beautiful. She was Scottish. Her mere existence was profound.
It was also unusually short, at just six years. But scientists in Japan announced yesterday they have succeeded in cloning mice using the same technique that created Dolly with more or less perfect results: The mice are healthy, they live just as long as regular mice, and they’ve been flawlessly cloned and recloned from the same source to the 25th generation.
Woolly mammoth DNA may lead to a resurrection of the ancient beast
Technical and ethical challenges abound after first hurdle of taking cells from millennia-old bodies is cleared
The pioneering scientist who created Dolly the sheep has outlined how cells plucked from frozen woolly mammoth carcasses might one day help resurrect the ancient beasts.
The notional procedure – bringing with it echoes of the Jurassic Park films – was spelled out by Sir Ian Wilmut, the Edinburgh-based stem-cell scientist, whose team unveiled Dolly as the world’s first cloned mammal in 1996.
Though it is unlikely that a mammoth could be cloned in the same way as Dolly, more modern techniques that convert tissue cells into stem cells could potentially achieve the feat, Wilmut says in an article today for the academic journalism website, The Conversation.
"I’ve always been very sceptical about the whole idea, but it dawned on me that if you could clear the first hurdle of getting viable cells from mammoths, you might be able to do something useful and interesting," Wilmut told the Guardian.
"I think it should be done as long as we can provide great care for the animal. If there are reasonable prospects of them being healthy, we should do it. We can learn a lot about them," he added.
Woolly mammoths roamed the Earth tens of thousands of years ago in a period called the late Pleistocene. Their numbers began to fall in North America and on mainland Eurasia about 10,000 years ago. Some lived on for a further 6,000 years. Their demise was likely the result of hunting and environmental change.
On Jan. 8, 2001, scientists at Advanced Cell Technology, Inc., announced the birth of the first clone of an endangered animal, a baby bull gaur (a large wild ox from India and southeast Asia) named Noah. Although Noah died of an infection unrelated to the procedure, the experiment demonstrated that it is possible to save endangered species through cloning.
Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. It has been used for many years to produce plants (even growing a plant from a cutting is a type of cloning).
Animal cloning has been the subject of scientific experiments for years, but garnered little attention until the birth of the first cloned mammal in 1996, a sheep named Dolly. Since Dolly, several scientists have cloned other animals, including cows and mice. The recent success in cloning animals has sparked fierce debates among scientists, politicians and the general public about the use and morality of cloning plants, animals and possibly humans.
In this article, we will examine how cloning works and look at possible uses of this technology.
The unfertilized eggs of some animals (small invertebrates, worms, some species of fish, lizards and frogs) can develop into full-grown adults under certain environmental conditions — usually a chemical stimulus of some kind. This process is calledparthenogenesis, and the offspring are clones of the females that laid the eggs.
Another example of natural cloning is identical twins. Although they are genetically different from their parents, identical twins are naturally occurring clones of each other.
Scientists have experimented with animal cloning, but have never been able to stimulate a specialized (differentiated) cell to produce a new organism directly. Instead, they rely on transplanting the genetic information from a specialized cell into an unfertilized egg cell whose genetic information has been destroyed or physically removed.
In the 1970s, a scientist named John Gurdon successfully cloned tadpoles. He transplanted the nucleus from a specialized cell of one frog (B) into an unfertilized egg of another frog (A) in which the nucleus had been destroyed by ultraviolet light. The egg with the transplanted nucleus developed into a tadpole that was genetically identical to frog B.
While Gurdon’s tadpoles did not survive to grow into adult frogs, his experiment showed that the process of specialization in animal cells was reversible, and his technique of nuclear transfer paved the way for later cloning successes.
In 1996, cloning was revolutionized when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, successfully cloned a sheep named Dolly. Dolly was the first cloned mammal.
Wilmut and his colleagues transplanted a nucleus from a mammary gland cell of a Finn Dorsett sheep into the enucleated egg of a Scottish blackface ewe. The nucleus-egg combination was stimulated with electricity to fuse the two and to stimulate cell division. The new cell divided and was placed in the uterus of a blackface ewe to develop. Dolly was born months later.
Dolly was shown to be genetically identical to the Finn Dorsett mammary cells and not to the blackface ewe, which clearly demonstrated that she was a successful clone (it took 276 attempts before the experiment was successful). Dolly has since grown and reproduced several offspring of her own through normal sexual means. Therefore, Dolly is a viable, healthy clone.
Since Dolly, several university laboratories and companies have used various modifications of the nuclear transfer technique to produce cloned mammals, including cows, pigs, monkeys, mice and Noah.
For the first time, scientists have cloned a mouse using a drop of blood.
Japanese scientists led by Atsuo Ogura, at the Riken BioResource Center in Tsukuba, Japan, collected circulating blood cells from the tail of a donor mouse to create a clone. The female mouse was cloned usingperipheral leukocyte blood cells — white blood cells that circulate in the blood rather than localizing in organs. She lived 23 months — a normal life span — and had the ability to reproduce, researchers said.
Researchers in Spain to attempt to clone extinct mountain goat
(Phys.org) — A team of researchers in Spain, with the Centre for Research and Food Technology of Aragon, has signed an agreement with the Aragon Hunting Federation (which they announced to the press) to begin testing the possibility of cloning a mountain goat that went extinct back in 2000.
The bucardo (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) was a sub-species of mountain ibex that lived in the Pyrenees—its numbers had been dwindling for years due to a number of factors, including a changing environment and hunting by humans. The last known survivor was a goat named Celia—she was killed by a tree falling on her—but not before researchers took tissue samples and froze them in liquid nitrogen. The hope was that as technology improved, eventually, cells from the samples could be used to clone new goats and thus resurrect the species…
Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned eighteen years ago, scientists have been trying and failing to use that same technique to create cloned human embryos from adult cells. Now, they’ve finally succeeded, in what could a major step toward personalized organ transplants and other therapies that rely on a pool of stem cells.
Last year, a different team of scientists reported a breakthrough in creating the first cloned human embryos ever. That team used cells taken from a fetus and an eight-month-old infant. This new result, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, tweaks the procedure to make it also work with skin cells from two adult men, ages 35 and 75.
Confirming that human clone embryos can indeed be made with adult cells means we could potentially someday scrape off a bit of your skin, put it in a cloned embryo, and extract stem cells personalized with your DNA. Those stem cells can then theoretically be programmed grow into any type of tissue—including an organ for transplant.
The basic process is the same as the one used to clone Dolly. The nucleus, which contains DNA, is sucked out of the adult cell and carefully placed in a donor egg, whose own nucleus has been removed. Scientists have gotten this process to work in over 20 different species, but humans, until recently, have proven tricky.
This result does not mean that cloned babies will be born anytime soon, however. The resulting embryo was missing some types of cells and would not have been able to implant in the womb. The difficulty of getting embryos to grow in the womb is, in fact, why partly scientists still haven’t been able to clone monkeys.
The most promising use of this human cloning technique is in creating embryos as a source of personalized stem cells. Currently, we get stem cells from embryos leftover from in vitro fertilization (IVF)—or we reprogram them from adult cells. Both techniques have their drawbacks, however, as IVF stem cells do not perfectly match the patient’s, and the reprogramming may not ever be entirely complete in adult cells, according to some studies.
Any therapies that may result from cloning adult cells is still far, far off on the horizon. Even with this basic lab research, plenty of questions about the moral implications of human cloning remain. It’s been 18 years since Dolly—but the ethical dilemmas haven’t changed a bit. [Cell Stem Cell via Wall Street Journal, TIME]