Human thorax and pectoral girdle with isolated arteries and veins

The abdominal (or thoracic) aorta and the inferior vena cava are the major artery and vein, respectively, that follow the spine down to the pelvis. 

Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme comprenant la medecine operatoire, par le docteur Marc Jean Bourgery. Illustrated by Nicolas Henri Jacob, 1831.

Marc-Jean Bourgery (1831-1854). Traité complet de l’anatomie. Volume 6, Plate 6.

This plate demonstrates the dissection of the neck and axilla. It depicts the neck muscles, parotid gland, jugular veins, and submandibular gland.

I was hanging out with this book at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library this afternoon, which has a really impressive collection of anatomical books. It includes a 1st edition of Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica (1543), as well as the second edition annotated by Vesalius himself (with notes on changes intended for the third edition). That edition wasn’t published until after Vesalius’s death in 1564, making this version of the manuscript his last produced work before his death. 

Oh, it’s also just really beautiful. 

Amputation of foot and leg with prostheses examples

Given that we largely only need our legs for balance and ambulation, and that we’re (usually) perfectly capable of balancing with one leg, making functional prostheses for the lower extremities was much simpler than making functional arms and hands. Heck, even a peg leg could work fine in most situations, at least if it was fitted well.

Most prostheses in the early-to-mid 19th century were focused more on aesthetics than on true usability. They looked like the real thing, and could easily be masked by pants and shoes, but they were often clunky, heavy, and ill-fitted (causing sores at the articulation point). Some doctors were trying to work on functional knees for prosthetic legs by that point, but those were even worse to use, as the “joint” was difficult to control.

Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme comprenant la medecine operatoire, par le docteur Marc Jean Bourgery. Nicolas Henri Jacob (artist), 1831.

Tooth Extraction and Extraction Tools

I don’t know a heck of a lot about dentistry, but I do know a few of the names of the extraction tools used (both back in the 1830s and today), and they’re excellent:

  • Greyhound
  • Cow horns
  • Bayonet
  • Root
  • Elevators [I know, I know, but still can’t help but see a lift in someone’s mouth, rather than a tool meant to elevate a tooth]

Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme comprenant la medecine operatoire, par le docteur Marc Jean Bourgery. Illustration by Nicolas Henri Jacob, 1831.

Posterior view of arteries and veins of the heart and lungs

The coronary sinus is clearly visible, as the largest vein on the body of the heart. "Coronary" means "crown", so if one thinks of the heart as a head, anything labeled “coronary” likely goes around it in a somewhat-encircling fashion.

The anterior cardiac veins drain directly into the right atrium, but the majority of the other cardiac veins (excluding some of the smallest), including the great cardiac vein, drain into the coronary sinus. The junction between the right atrium and the coronary sinus is marked by the Thesbian valve.

Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme comprenant la medecine operatoire, par le docteur Marc Jean Bourgery. Illustration by Nicolas Henri Jacob, 1831.

Tooth Extraction and Extraction Instruments

Looks like a fun trip to the dentist! Though, as anyone with a seriously abscessed tooth can tell you, it would have definitely been worth the temporary (relatively small) pain spike in order to alleviate the continuing pain from the infection.

Traité complet de l’anatomie de l’homme comprenant la medecine operatoire, par le docteur Marc Jean Bourgery. Illustration by Nicolas Henri Jacob, 1831.

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