biosynthetics

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In this video hosted by The London Real, Dr Rachel Armstrong, the co-director of AVATAR (for Advanced Virtual and Technological Architectural Research), talks about her concept of Living Architecture and why she believes it can prevent the sinking of Venice, how she is designing an interstellar “worldship” with Project Persephone, and why her favourite place is in the laboratory.

Source: The London Real

Major Advance in Artificial Photosynthesis Poses Win/Win for the Environment

Major Advance in Artificial Photosynthesis Poses Win/Win for the Environment #ArtificialPhotosynthesis

This break-through artificial photosynthesis system has four general components: (1) harvesting solar energy, (2) generating reducing equivalents, (3) reducing CO2 to biosynthetic intermediates, and (4) producing value-added chemicals.

Berkeley Lab Researchers Perform Solar-powered Green Chemistry with Captured CO2

A potentially game-changing breakthrough in artificial photosynthesis has been…

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Living City (New York and San Francisco, 2008) (by David Benjamin)

Ronald Bentley (1999) Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis: The First Century. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 19(1):1–40

Later on Bentley raises problems with the word biomimetic, as used in ‘biomimetics: a branch of biology that uses information from biological systems to develop synthetic systems”, but generally equivalent to “biosynthetic- (biogenetic)-type, pseudo-physiologiques, biosynthetically (biogenetically)-modeled, etc.” examples of organic synthesis with a plausible or proven natural construction pathway.

I came across this piece via an excellent essay on models in biology, and two sources of the phrase ‘what is true for E. coli is true for the elephant’. It’s widely cited as having been uttered by Monod in 1954, but actually originated from a 1926 essay on Unity in Biochemistry (written in German and not available online) by Kluyver and Donker:

Kluyver is in turn thought to have lifted the phrase from a 1909 text by Max Rubner:

During his East Indies years he had visited Sri Lanka and India. Elephants were on his mind: in his inaugural address at Delft (1922), he stated: “fate has taken me to far-away countries, and did not Goethe, in his ‘Wahlverwandschaften’ [Elective Affinities] say: ‘One’s attitudes certainly change in a country where elephants and tigers are at home’?”. Another, more direct source of Kluyver’s saying is in the 1909 passage by Max Rubner, quoted earlier: if one substitutes “elephant” for “biggest mammal,” one almost immediately has Kluyver’s aphorism.

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DEV CORE - Week 5 with Ben Hooker

INTRODUCTION

In our class dedicated to developing our individual process of inquiry, we chose an emerging field of science and were asked to explore its design implications. I chose biosynthetics. Through this science, we can create cells from scratch or re-engineer an existing cell to change its core functioning outside of the natural context.

My research uncovered a sub-culture of citizen scientists (also known as “biopunks”) advocating for increasing the public’s scientific literacy (gaining knowledge through application, experimentation and making vs. passive information sharing).

While the field is nascent, the questions raised through this line of inquiry are not. By changing the fundamental fabric of nature, scientists are raising philosophical questions that have a long and rich history of polemics:What is natural? What is truth? What is moral? What is the relationship between knowledge and power? What is the role of the aesthetic creator in the political state?

PROJECT OVERVIEW

Condition: The DIY culture is converging with the field of biosynthetics, creating a new class of citizen scientists whose work questions: “What is natural?” and “What is true?”

Design Problem:How can we arm more citizens to engage in making; and in doing so, expand upon the philosophical discourse on truth, power and morality?

Solution:These pictures represent a DIY manual I designed for citizen scientists to grow their own fabric using bio-cultures. In addition to simple “how to” instructions, the manual includes detailed footnotes that relate to the philosophical questions that should come up in the making process.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

To take thisfurther, I am considering two routes. The first is to treat the work as a typography and graphics design challenge…making the visual manifestation more closely align with the content’s conceptual underpinning. The second option is working with a linguist and a bio-engineer to explore opportunities to create a new “post-post-structuralist code,” that appropriates traditional signs and symbols using bio-engineered materials.

INSIGHTS

  1. Be more iterative in my making process - prototype many ideas
  2. Try focusing projects on the future vs. looking to the past for meaning
Rapamycin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Alters the Metabolic Phenotype in T-Cell Lymphoma.

Rapamycin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Alters the Metabolic Phenotype in T-Cell Lymphoma.

J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Apr 21;

Authors: Kittipongdaja W, Wu X, Garner J, Liu X, Komas SM, Hwang ST, Schieke SM

Abstract
The mTOR pathway is a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. The biosynthetic and energetic demand of rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells is met be metabolic adaptations such as increased glycolytic rate known as the Warburg effect. Herein, we characterize the antitumor effect of rapamycin in a mouse model of T-cell lymphoma and examine the metabolic effects in vitro. The murine T-cell lymphoma line, MBL2, and human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lines, HH and Hut78, were used in syngeneic or standard NSG mouse models to demonstrate a marked suppression of tumor growth by rapamycin accompanied by inhibition of mTORC1/2. Analysis of the metabolic phenotype showed a substantial reduction of the glycolytic rate and glucose utilization in rapamycin-treated lymphoma cells. This was associated with reduced expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes in cultured cells and xenograft tumors. As a result of the decrease in glycolytic state, rapamycin-treated cells displayed reduced sensitivity to low-glucose conditions but continued to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with sensitivity to inhibition of OXPHOS. Taken together, we demonstrate that rapamycin suppresses growth of T-cell lymphoma tumors and leads to a reduction of aerobic glycolysis counteracting the Warburg effect of cancer cells.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 21 April 2015. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.153.

PMID: 25897830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



via pubmed: lymphoma daily http://ift.tt/1IGNDO4
Major Advance in Artificial Photosynthesis Poses Win/Win for the Environment

“However, this new artificial photosynthetic system synthesizes the combination of carbon dioxide and water into acetate, the most common building block today for biosynthesis. “Our system has the potential to fundamentally change the chemical and oil industry in that we can produce chemicals and fuels in a totally renewable way, rather than extracting them from deep below the ground.” This break-through artificial photosynthesis system has four general components: (1) harvesting solar energy, (2) generating reducing equivalents, (3) reducing CO2 to biosynthetic intermediates, and (4) producing value-added chemicals. The paper is titled “Nanowire-bacteria hybrids for unassisted solar carbon dioxide fixation to value-added chemicals.” The other corresponding authors and leaders of this research are chemists Christopher Chang and Michelle Chang.”

Read more on newscenter.lbl.gov or discuss it on HN.

Psilocybe cubensis 

> Known to the Indians of Mexico as “San Isidro,” this species is extremely psycho-active, with dried specimens typically yielding over 1% combined psilocybin/psilocin content. N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic compound that is inactive orally, is an intermediary metabolite present in the biosynthetic pathway of Psilocybe cubensis, being only one step away from psilocin and two from psilocybin. Psilocin (designated 4-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) and the human neurotransmitter serotonin (designated 5-hydroxytryptamine) differ by only one hydroxy molecule. In this respect, the mushrooms are mirror images of the human brain.

Clearly, they don’t have the same identity politics that animals have. being clones of themselves, they behave like one life form when conditions allow for this. as this polymorphous configuration of spiraling incestuous fungi demonstrates.

Transcriptome analysis of leaves, roots and flowers of Panax notoginseng identifies genes involved in ginsenoside and alkaloid biosynthesis

Background: Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is one of the most highly valued medicinal plants in the world. The major bioactive molecules are triterpene saponins, which are also known as ginsenosides. However, its large genome size has hindered the assembly of a draft genome by whole genome sequencing. Hence, genomic and transcriptomic details about P. notoginseng, especially its biosynthetic pathways and gene expression in different parts of the plant, have remained largely unknown until now. Results: In this study, #RNA sequencing of three different P. notoginseng tissues was performed using next generation DNA sequencing. After assembling the high quality sequencing reads into 107,340 unigenes, biochemical pathways were predicted and 9,908 unigenes were assigned to 135 KEGG pathways. Among them, 270 unigenes were identified to be involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis. In addition, 350 and 342 unigenes were predicted to encode cytochrome P450s and glycosyltransferases, respectively, based on the annotation results, some of which encode enzymes responsible for the conversion of the triterpene saponin backbone into different ginsenosides. In particular, one unigene predominately expressed in the root was annotated as CYP716A53v2, which probably participates in the formation of protopanaxatriol from protopanaxadiol in P. notoginseng. The differential expression of this gene was further confirmed by real-time PCR. Conclusions: We have established a global transcriptome dataset for P. notoginseng and provided additional genetic information for further genome-wide research and analyses. Candidate genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis, including putative cytochrome P450s and glycosyltransferases were obtained. The transcriptomes in different plant tissues also provide invaluable resources for future study of the differences in physiological processes and secondary metabolites in different parts of P. notoginseng. http://bit.ly/1EKBloD #BMC

United States Wound Care Management Procedures Outlook to 2020

See on Scoop.it - Business Market Research Reports


rnrmarketresearch’s insight:

RnRMarketResearch.com offers “United States Wound Care Management Procedures Outlook to 2020” global research report on its store.


GlobalData’s new report, “United States Wound Care Management Procedures Outlook to 2020″, provides key procedures data on the United States Wound Care Management Procedures. The report provides procedure volumes within market categories Tissue Engineered Skin Substitute Procedures (Synthetic Skin Substitute Procedures, Biosynthetic Skin Substitute Procedures and Biologic Skin Substitute Procedures ((Allograft Cellular and Acellular Procedures) and Xenograft Acellular Procedures), Wound Debridement Procedures and Ostomy Procedures.

The data in the report is derived from dynamic market forecast models. GlobalData uses epidemiology based models to estimate and forecast the procedure volumes. The objective is to provide information that represents the most up-to-date data of the industry possible.

The epidemiology-based forecasting model makes use of epidemiology data gathered from research publications and primary interviews with physicians to establish the target patient population and treatment flow patterns for individual diseases and therapies. Using prevalence and incidence data and diagnosed and treated population, the epidemiology-based forecasting model arrives at the final numbers.

Extensive interviews are conducted with key opinion leaders (KOLs), physicians and industry experts to validate the procedure volumes.

The complete report is available at http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/united-states-wound-care-management-procedures-outlook-to-2020-market-report.html .



Scope of The Report:


Procedure volumes data for Wound Care Management Procedures segments Tissue Engineered Skin Substitute Procedures (Synthetic Skin Substitute Procedures, Biosynthetic Skin Substitute Procedures and Biologic Skin Substitute Procedures ((Allograft Cellular and Acellular Procedures) and Xenograft Acellular Procedures), Wound Debridement Procedures and Ostomy Procedures.Projections for each of the market segments. Data is provided from 2005 to 2013 and forecast to 2020.

 

Reasons to Buy This Report:


Develop business and investment strategies by identifying the key market segments expected to register strong growth in the near future.Develop market-entry and market expansion strategies.

Priced at US $1500 for a single user PDF, Order a purchase copy of this report at http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/contacts/purchase?rname=217369 .


Table of Content for “United States Wound Care Management Procedures Outlook to 2020” research report includes:


List of Tables

Table 1: Wound Care Management, United States, 2005-2020 7

Table 2: Wound Care Management, United States Category Comparison by Procedures, 2005-2020 8

Table 3: Wound Care Management, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 10

Table 4: Wound Care Management, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 12

Table 5: Ostomy Procedures, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 14

Table 6: Ostomy Procedures, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 16

Table 7: Tissue Engineered - Skin Substitute Procedures, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 18

Table 8: Tissue Engineered - Skin Substitute Procedures, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 20

Table 9: Biologic Skin Substitute Procedures, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 22

Table 10: Allograft Procedures, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 24

Table 11: Biologic Skin Substitute Procedures, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 26

Table 12: Allograft Procedures, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 28

Table 13: Wound Debridement Procedures, United States, Historic, 2005-2013 30

Table 14: Wound Debridement Procedures, United States, Forecast, 2013-2020 31

Table 15: Total Number of Primary Research Participants, Wound Care Management, by Country 35

 

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RnR Market Research library offers syndicated reports by market research publishers from across the globe. We help you find the most relevant business intelligence from ready-to-buy syndicated market research studies. Not limited to industry reports covering telecommunication, healthcare, pharmaceutical, financial services, energy, technology, real estate, logistics, F&B , media and more, RnR Market Research also offers company data, country profiles, trends, information and analysis on the sector of your interest. (http://www.rnrmarketresearch.com/latest_reports .)

Carbidopa-Based Modulation of the Functional Effect of the AAV2-hAADC Gene Therapy in 6-OHDA Lesioned Rats.

PubMed: Carbidopa-Based Modulation of the Functional Effect of the AAV2-hAADC Gene Therapy in 6-OHDA Lesioned Rats.

PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122708

Authors: Ciesielska A, Sharma N, Beyer J, Forsayeth J, Bankiewicz K

Abstract
Progressively blunted response to L-DOPA in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a critical factor that complicates long-term pharmacotherapy in view of the central importance of this drug in management of the PD-related motor disturbance. This phenomenon is likely due to progressive loss of one of the key enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for dopamine in the basal ganglia: aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). We have developed a gene therapy based on an adeno-associated virus encoding human AADC (AAV2-hAADC) infused into the Parkinsonian striatum. Although no adverse clinical effects of the AAV2-hAADC gene therapy have been observed so far, the ability to more precisely regulate transgene expression or transgene product activity could be an important long-term safety feature. The present study was designed to define pharmacological regulation of the functional activity of AAV2-hAADC transgene product by manipulating L-DOPA and carbidopa (AADC inhibitor) administration in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Thirty days after unilateral striatal infusion of AAV2-hAADC, animals displayed circling behavior and acceleration of dopamine metabolism in the lesioned striatum after administration of a low dose of L-DOPA (5 mg/kg) co-administered with 1.25 mg/kg of carbidopa. This phenomenon was not observed in control AAV2-GFP-treated rats. Withdrawal of carbidopa from a daily L-DOPA regimen decreased the peripheral L-DOPA pool, resulting in almost total loss of L-DOPA-induced behavioral response in AAV2-hAADC rats and a significant decline in striatal dopamine turnover. The serum L-DOPA level correlated with the magnitude of circling behavior in AAV2-hAADC rats. Additionally, AADC activity in homogenates of lesioned striata transduced by AAV2-AADC was 10-fold higher when compared with AAV2-GFP-treated control striata, confirming functional transduction. Our data suggests that the pharmacological regulation of circulating L-DOPA might be effective in the controlling of function of AAV2-hAADC transgene product in PD gene therapy.

PMID: 25860990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] http://dlvr.it/9LXYkn

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Drawing tomorrow’s biology.