Imagine electronic medical devices, implanted to heal wounds and then dissipating inside the human body. 

Welcome to the next generation of medical devices!

A collaboration between scientists at Tufts School of Engineering at the University of Illinois has led to the creation of tiny, fully biocompatible electronic devices that, once they have functioned for a set period of time, dissolve harmlessly into their surroundings. The devices, dubbed “transient electronics”, are thought to be the next-generation of medical devices, and could lead to a range of  implants that never need surgical removal – not to mention that they are fully compostable.

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Organic transistors for brain mapping | KurzweilAI

To improve brain mapping, a group of French scientists have produced the world’s first biocompatible microscopic organic transistors that can amplify and record signals directly from the surface of the brain, building on prototypes developed at the Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility (CNF).

This is the first in vivo use of transistor arrays to record brain activity directly on the surface of the cortex using electrocorticography (ECoG). This is a ten-fold improvement in signal/noise quality compared with current ECoG electrode technology, the scientists say.

In epileptic patients, ECoG recordings help to scout brain regions responsible for seizure genesis. For patients with brain tumors, recordings help to chart the brain for tumor removal. In addition, electrical recordings of neuronal activity are being used in brain-machine interfaces to help paralyzed people control prosthetic limbs.

However, neurons and brain networks generate small electric potentials, which are difficult to extract from noise when recorded with classical electrodes made of metals. In addition, today’s ECoG amplifiers are bulky and placed outside the skull, where the signal degrades.

These new biocompatible microdevices are flexible enough to go inside the brain and follow the curvilinear shape of the brain surface.

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Nanorelief improves the biocompatibility of titanium surface.

Scientists from the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Russia, have proposed a new method for surface modification of titanium, giving it the unique optical and mechanical properties, as well as improving the biocompatibility of the sample. Implants made ​​of nanocrystalline titanium with the new…

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Titanium Plate, Bar and Sheets - Technical Aspects in Details

You might notice by making focus your attention for pure metal would be a silver-colored metal that has matured as a metal of strategic importance at intervals the last fifty years. Its density is around fifty fifth of steel with similar strength. Metal are a durable, biocompatible metal that’s sometimes used in artificial joints, dental implants, and surgical instrumentality. It conjointly finds use in region and form of automotive applications as results of its operational temperature limit is type of 500°C. For region structures manufacturing it’s equipped in anybody of resulting forms: metal billet, metal bar, metal plate, metal sheet, metal tubes, metal extrusions or metal forgings.

Apart from its use as a structural metal it’s conjointly additional in very little quantities to steels and absolutely entirely totally different alloys to increase hardness and strength by the formation of carbides and oxides. Metal can exist throughout a attempt of allotropically forms: alpha and beta. Its mechanical properties are closely related to these allotropically phases, with the beta section being easy stronger but a lot of brittle than the alpha section. Hence, metal alloys are sometimes classified as alpha, beta, and alpha-beta alloys. Metal alloys have engaging engineering properties that embrace a desirable combination of moderate weight and high strength, property retention at high temperatures and sensible resistance. Such form of properties offer high values of specific strength, Sylp that’s fascinating for transportation systems.

Apart from the commercially pure sorts of metal, there are three principal kinds of alloys: alpha, beta, and alpha-beta alloys that are accessible in formed and solid forms. In recent years some even became accessible in powder forms. The system of designations for metal alloys varies from one customary to another; however, the foremost rife and infrequently used system is to decision the alloy by its composition. as an example, Ti-4A1-3V, that suggests its major alloying elements are four wheel drive metal and 3 gold components. There are five grades of what are spoken as commercially pure or pure metal, ASTM Grades one through four, and 7. each grade selections entirely absolutely entirely totally different impurity content, with Grade one being the foremost pure. Tensile strengths vary from 172 purpose of reference for Grade one to 483 purpose of reference for grade four.

Titanium compound can be a extremely necessary product of metal and is made by reacting pigment and carbon at temperatures on the far side 1800°C. It’s compacted with Co or nickel to use in cutting tools and for heat-resistant components and its lighter weight and fewer costly than vary seventy four chemical compounds, but it’s a lot of brittle in cutting tools.

One of the primary uses of metal is as compound at intervals the look of a white pigment. It’s conjointly wide used as metal compound for burdensome facings and for cutting tools. Primarily as a result of their specific strength, metal and its alloys are wide used for craft structures requiring larger heat-resistance than metal alloys. as a result of their exceptional corrosion-resistance they are conjointly used for activity, chemical process, power generation instrumentality, marine hardware and valve and pump components, and prosthetic devices. Alloy Ti-6A1-4V is wide used in medical applications equipped to manufacturers as metal billet, metal bar, metal plate, metal sheet, metal tubes, metal extrusions or metal forgings.

Titanium is also found in a very passing kind memory alloy (SMA) material brought up as Nitinol, which will be a metal alloyed with nickel that exhibits superelastic behaviour. It’s a corrosion resistant, biocompatible material that selections a form memory property, making it useful for implantable devices requiring Associate in Nursing initial kind for insertion and a final kind once in place. The properties of Nitinol have faith in its dynamic crystalline structure that’s sensitive to external stress and temperature. The alloy has 3 created public temperature phases that influence its behavior:

Austenite Phase: This temperature is on the far side the transition temperature and varies relying upon the precise composition of the Nitinol alloy; industrial alloys sometimes have shift temperatures between 70°C and 130°C (158 to 266°F). The yield strength thereupon the material tries to come back to its original kind is considerable; 35,000 to 70,000 psi. Crystalline structure is three-dimensional. Martensitic Phase: throughout this low-temperature section the crystal structure is needle-like, with the crystals aligned. The alloy is as well bent or formed simply using a deformation pressure of 10,000 to 20,000 psi. Transformation of crystalline structure of the alloy by producing internal stresses. Annealing Phase: throughout this high-temperature section the alloy will reorient its (cubic) crystalline structure to remember its gift kind. The tempering section for Nitinol wire is at intervals the vary of 540°C.

When at temperature Nitinol is at intervals the martensitic section and can be distorted pro re nata. Once the new kind is heated on the far side its shift temperature (austenite phase), the crystalline structure changes from needle-like to cube like. the next cube like structure does not work into identical house as a results of the needle-like structures formed once the alloy was bent. Of these merchandise of metal plate, bar and sheets at are on the market on line.

Cytotoxicity of PEGylated graphene oxide on lymphoma cells.

Cytotoxicity of PEGylated graphene oxide on lymphoma cells.

Biomed Mater Eng. 2014 Jan 1;24(6):2135-41

Authors: Du L, Wu S, Li Y, Zhao X, Ju X, Wang Y

Graphene oxide (GO) is a hotspot, especially in the field of biomedical. However, the clinical application of GO is still faces a lot of challenges. In order to improve the solubility and biocompatibility of GO, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was grafted on the surface of graphene oxide by amide reaction. PEGylated graphene oxide (PEG-GO) was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stability of PEG-GO detected in different solutions. Raji cell was selected as a lymphoma cell model to study the cytotoxicity of PEG-GO. Cell viability was detected using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cells were treated with different concentrations (10-100 μg/mL) of PEG-GO at different time points (6, 12, and 24 h). The FTIR spectrum of PEG-GO indicated that polyethylene glycol was successfully grafted onto GO. PEG-GO had excellent stability in all solutions. Cells treated with PEG-GO (10-100 μg/mL) for 24 hours had survival rates were over 80%. These results demonstrate that PEG-GO had an excellent dispersion in biological solutions and the toxicity of PEG-GO to lymphoma cells was low. The paper may provide cytological evidence for the application of PEG-GO in medicine.

PMID: 25226911 [PubMed - in process]

via pubmed: lymphoma daily
How do microneedles deliver drugs? HD

Dr Ryan Donnelly, from the School of Pharmacy at Queen’s University Belfast, demonstrates his microneedle technology that could revolutionise the way drugs are delivered — from small molecules to vaccines and biological compounds. The microneedle patches, which can range from the size of a phone sim card to the size of a mobile phone, are applied to the skin like a normal medical plaster. What makes Donnelly’s system special compared to similar emerging ‘needleless injection’ platforms is that his array of just over 300 microneedles — each just over half a millimetre high — are made of biocompatible hydrogels that are not toxic to the human body, but can also take up biological fluids and so lead to new ways to monitor metabolites, such as blood sugar in diabetes, in the sick and healthy. See the full feature with links to more resources here: share and embed this video with credit to BBSRC. See more BBSRC videos here: BBSRC News for the latest news, features and events: BBSRC on Twitter: