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More Art Monday: Ghouls

Rahula, Protector of Zogchen Teachings,” c. 19th century, Tibet

Rakshasas,” c. 10th century, India

Rustam Kills a Demon,” c. 1575, attributed to Mahesha

The Goddess Kali Slaying Demons,” c. 1700–1725, India

Ferocious Male Bhuta,” c. 19th–20th century, India

More Art Monday is brought to you by Art 24/7.

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Bhuta:Area from/nationality: India. Normally created due to the violent death of an individual. The Bhuta are found in cemeteries or in dark desolate places, eating excrement or intestines. An attack by one of these creatures usually resulted in severe sickness or death. They are mostly harmless, although they will attack babies who have just fed, as they love milk. They can transmogrify into owls or bats, and in their ghostly form they appear as a ball of light or as a misty figure. It was believed that those who were physically disabled, insane or suicidal were destined to become a Bhuta following their death. Bhutas can inhabit or possess and reanimate dead bodies in order to use them as a vessel with which to attack the living. Part of a reason why they cannot settle on this earth or rest in peace is because they have no shadow. The bhuta is a night spirit and generally lives like a ghoul. They rarely possess the living, they generally just feed on them. The bhuta can never rest on the ground so flat on the ground and they can’t touch you. There are some who give offerings to the bhuta to provide them with food and general safety.

bhuta

ka ta bo ta - town of paro in bhutan [JV]

ka a bo a - ka abo a [indian for town of paro in Bhutan] [IW]

ku la gangs ri - {ku la gangs ri mt in Bhutan [IW]

kun legs - 1) {kun dga’ legs pa} all joyful goodness; 2) mad yogi of Bhutan) [IW]

kun legs - 1) [R] all joyful goodness; 2) mad yogi of Bhutan [IW]

kun gsal - 1) all- illuminating; 2) brilliant; 3) fully clear; 4) sun; 5) sky, space; 6) mirror; 7) official Bhutan government newspaper [IW]

kun gsal gsar shog - {kun gsal gsar shog} official Bhutan government newspaper [IW]

klo mon - 1) barbaric mon. 2) the barbaric country / area of Mon. [probably Bhutan] [RY]

klo mon - [Bhutan?], the barbaric country of Mon [IW]

klo mon - barbaric man (probably bhutanese) [JV]

bkra shis chos rdzong - summer seat of government of bhutan [JV]

bkra shis chos rdzong - {bkra shis chos rdzong [Bhutan] [IW]

bkris sgang - Tashi gang Bhutan [IW]

sku srung dmag mi - bodyguard soldier, Bhutanese royal bodyguard [IW]

skye chu lha khang - the Kyechu Temple at Paro in Bhutan built by Songtsen Gampo [RY]

skyer chu - a river of spa gro in Bhutan [JV]

skrong sa - {skrong sa} Bhutan [IW]

khang dmar - khang dmar rdzong [ST between rgyal rtse and gro mo, rdzong, to the S bordeing Bhutan] [IW]

kham bu ma chu - {kham bu ma chu} river [S Tibet with souce flowing from blon po rgyal gdong, gro mo brgyud nas flowing into Bhutan] [IW]

khal - 1) pack/ load/ burden [for an animal’s back; 2) volume/ weight measur[ing device]; 3) unit of to in Bhutanese numerical system [IW]

gu ru rin po che - Guru Rinpoche ‘Precious Master.’ The lotus born tantric master who established Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet in the 9th century at the invitation of King Trisong Deutsen. He manifested the attainment of the four vidyadhara levels. He hid innumerable Dharma treasures throughout Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan to be revealed by destined disciples in the centuries to come. Guru Rinpoche resides on the summit of the Copper Colored Mountain on the southeastern continent. He is also known under the names Padmasambhava and Padmakara [RY]

gro mo - gro mo rdzong [S T, w Bhutan E and Sikkim W, ruled from shar gsing mar] [IW]

dge legs phu - Bhutan [IW]

rgya bal ‘bras ‘brug - India/ CH, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan [IW]

rgyal gron - ADC to king of Bhutan [IW]

rgyal gzim - Private Secretary of the King of Bhutan [IW]

rgyal yongs tshogs ‘du - national assembly/ congress [Bhutan] [IW]

rgyal sras bstan ‘dzin rab rgyas - 1638-1696 - Bhutanese ruler and religious leader [RY]

sgang zur dgon pa - monastery in {lhun rtse} Bhutan, Thimphu [RY]

ngag dbang grags pa - {yongs ‘dzin} 16th cent. Bhutanese gter ston} [RY]

ngag dbang rnam rgyal - Ngawang Namgyal / - Seventeenth century Kagy? lama who became Dharma king of Bhutan [RY]

mchog gling rin po che - Chokling Rinpoche, there are two incarnation lineages. Kela (or Tsikey) Chokling and Neten Chokling, named after the two main monasteries of Chokgyur Lingpa. The second Kela Chokling was named Konchok Tenpey Gyaltsen. After his passing a Tulku was born who died at the early age of thirteen. This Tulku had two incarnations. One is the second son of Tulku Orgyen Rinpoche, Mingyur Dewey Dorje, who came to Nepal with his father. The other Tulku stays in Derge/Eastern Tibet. The second Neten Chokling?s name was Ngedon Drubpe Dorje. He was followed by Chokling Pema Gyurme who passed away in India. The present Neten Chokling is named Gyurme Dorje and was born in Bhutan. [tsd]

jo mo kha nag - snowy mountain in s. tibet near bhutan [JV]

'jam dpal gzhon nu - Mma?jushri-kumara[bhuta] [who is ever youthful] [IW]

'jam dpal gzhon nu - Ma?jushri-kumara[bhuta] [IW]

'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa - Manjushri-kumara-bhuta [IW]

'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa - Manjushri-kumara-bhuta [faults of harshness completely abandoning, supremely possessing the virtues of gentleness, in all times and directions he became 16 princely youths. ep of Manjushri] [IW]

'jam dpal gzhon nur gyur pa - Manjushri-kumara-bhuta, Youthful Gentle Splendor [RY]

'jam gzhon nu - Manjushri-kumarabhuta [ever-youthful] [RY]

'jigs med mkhyen brtse 'od zer - His Holiness Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, head of the Nyingma school, had monasteries in Bhutan and one in Kathmandu, Nepal [RY]

stag tshang - Taktsang, thirteen, in Tibet and Bhutan. See Tiger Dens [RY]

stag tshang - 1) tiger’s den/ lair; 2) cave in Bhutan [IW]

stag tshang - Tiger Dens, thirteen, in Tibet and Bhutan [RY]

bstan ‘dzin chos rgyal - (1700-1767) the tenth rje mkhan po of Bhutan [RY]

bstan ‘dzin rab rgyas - rgyal sras, 1638-1696 - Bhutanese ruler and religious leader [RY]

thim phu - Thimphu [capital of Bhutan] [IW]

thim phug - Thimphu [capital of Bhutan] [RY]

them phug - Thimpu [capital of Bhutan] [IW]

mthu ldan - Prabhuta [Buddha]. powerful, strong [RY]

mthu ldan - [Prabhuta (epthet of Buddha] powerful, strong [IW]

dob dob - nonsense, athletic or warrior monk, one who dresses tying his breeches above the knees, bhutanese, stuff [JV]

drag shos - best most noble/ superior, title for Bhutanese aristocracy [IW]

bde thang - 1) physical health, well being; 2) plains, flatlands; 3) {bde ba thang} Bhutan [IW]

bde ba thang - bde ba thang} Bhutan [IW]

mdo sde brag - dodeda monastery in Bhutan [RY]

pu na kha - {pu na kha} [winter capital of Bhutan [IW]

pu na kha - winter capital of bhutan [JV]

dpal gro mon la - town in bhutan [JV]

dpon slob - master and disciple, abbr of dpon po dang slob ma, title of petty feudal governors ruling in bhutan, abbr of dpon dang g.yog [JV]

spa gro - seat of west bhutan government called paro [JV]

spa gro - Paro/ Patro, Bhutan [IW]

spa gro - Paro. in Bhutan [RY]

spa gro stag tshang - Padro Tagtshang which is a meditation place in Bhutan [JV]

spa gro stag tshang bsam grub ke’u tshang - Paro Taktsang, in Bhutan [RY]

spa gro rdzong - Paro Dzong, in Bhutan [RY]

spung thang - Punakha [bhutan] [IW]

spung thang - Punakha [Bhutan] [RY]

spyi mi - ordinary person replacement/ administrator, delegate to Bhutan national Assembly, elected group leader [IW]

pha jo ‘brug sgom zhig po - a 12th century khams pa ‘brug pa bka’ rgyud pa meditative ascetic who spread his teaching in Bhutan; a 12th century Khampa yogi of the Drukpa Kargy? sect, founder of the Phajo lineages of Bhutan [RY]

phag ri rdzong - {phag ri rdzong} [fort and frontier station at border of T, Bhutan, and Sikkim] [IW]

phun gling - phun tshogs ling [jonangpa monastery in Tsang or 1 in Bhutan] [IW]

pho mo byang thang - mtsho large lake on bhutan frontier [JV]

phyed am - unit of Bhutanese currency [IW]

bod skad - TTn language [the people of the autonomous snowland of Tibet kyis brda la nye bar bkol ba’i skad de. In general of the nomads and rong [ravine/valley people, farmers] ‘brog gnyis las, as for the nomad language, the upper lower and modle nomad sde are without distinction, sgra gdangs drag cing gyong nyams che la sngon gyi sgra sbyor gyi zur ma nyams par thon pa dang, zhing sde’i yul lung rnams su skad kyi khyad par sna tshogs yod pas gdangs ‘don tshul sogs gcig tu ma nges, da char yongs grags su bod kyi yul gru upper, middle, and lower, depending on that are divided into the three classes of people living there, the language of the upper part, dbus, gtsang and, in the middle khams pa’i skad, below aa mdo’i skad. As for Tibtan Mongolian etc other minority peoples khag cig gis bed spyod gtong bzhin yod par ma zad, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan kyi also bed spyod gtong bzhin yod shes rig lag rgyun also is abundant. As for occupations most are nomads and farmers, zhor ! du lag shes bzo las etc. The Tibetan people are industrious and rtul phod che ba, phyi’i btsan ‘dzul la ‘gog rgol dang, mes rgyal gcig gyur la ‘tsho srung, mes rgyal bzo [IW]

byang chub rgyal mtshan - 18th cent. Bhutanese prelate [RY]

dbang ‘dus pho brang - {dbang ‘dus pho brang}, Bhutan [palace] [IW]

'bu ras - coarse sort of raw silk from bhutan [JV]

'bum thang thar pa gling - TARPALING IN BUMTANG. Temple in eastern Bhutan founded by Longchen Rabjam [RY]

'byung po - also graha, gdon; mi ma yin - Spirits, bhuta, malignant beings of the preta class, ghosts etc [RY]

'byung po - a class of beings mainly included in the preta realm, ghost, evil spirits, a spirit, creature, harmful spirits, any being, even a plant. bhuta, [class of beings mainly included in the preta realm]; a demon; evil forces; sky-traveling preta-demon [RY]

'byung po - [harmful] spirit, evil forces, 1) living beings with form established from the four elements 2) harmful formless geks and d”ns [class of beings mainly included in the preta realm, ghost, evil spirits, a spirit, creature, harmful spirits, any being, even a plant bhuta, evil forces] [IW]

'byung po - exposition, elements, beings, creature, demon, evil spirit, 1 of 12 kinds of yi dwags, type of lha, name of a class of spirits that corresponds to the Bhuta of the Indian tradition [JV]

'bras ljongs - Sikkim. [South of ya gling and the Himalaya range a kingdom, between autonomous Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, and India. The capital is Gangtok sgang thog, it is a kingdom with a hereditary king. In (1975 it was annexed into India.] [IW]

'brug - dragon *, thunder[ous], clap, crack, Bhutan, Drukpa Kagyu [IW]

'brug - 1) thunder, thunderous, clap, crack. 2) Bhutan. 3) - Drukpa Kagyu [RY]

'brug - dragon symbolical of thunder, thunder, lightning, whirlwind, mythical winged dragon, 1 of 12 dus tshod, Bhutan [JV]

'brug - dragon [animal in the 12 year cycle], thunder[ous], clap, crack, Bhutan, drukpa kagyu [IW]

'brug skad - [sound of] thunder *, Bhutanese speech [IW]

'brug gri - Bhutanese knife [IW]

'brug rgyal - king of Bhutan [IW]

'brug rgyal sku 'khor - royal family of Bhutan [IW]

'brug rgyal mnga' bdag mchog - {‘brug rgyal mnga’ bdag mchog}, title of king of Bhutan [IW]

'brug rgyal mnga' bdag rin po che - {‘brug rgyal mnga’ bdag mchog}, title of king of Bhutan [IW]

'brug rgyal po - the King of Bhutan [RY]

'brug rgyal mo - the Queen of Bhutan [RY]

'brug chas - Bhutanese dress / clothing [RY]

'brug pa - native of bhutan, thunderers or sect of buddhists inhabiting bhutan [JV]

'brug pa - Bhutanese, Drukpa Kagyu [IW]

'brug pa kun legs - Drukpa Kunley, the mad yogi of Bhutan [IW]

'brug pa kun legs - Drukpa Kunley (the mad yogi of bhutan). in the 9th rabjung without a fixed dwelling an actionless Drukpa kagyu yogi. his life gtsang rnam dang, btsog rnam both are well known. [IW]

'brug pa'i dmag mi - Bhutanese soldier [IW]

'brug mi - Bhutanese person [IW]

'brug smad - lower or later sect of ‘brug pa school, lower bhutan [JV]

'brug zhabs - ecclesiastical ruler of bhutan, dharma raja of bhutan [JV]

'brug gzhung - Bhutanese government [RY]

'brug gzig - species of leopard found in bhutan the bones of which are used as antidote to cancerous sores and dog bites [JV]

'brug yul - Bhutan, Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal’s land of residence [RY]

'brug yul - bhutan, Bhutan [JV]

'brug yul - Bhutan [RY]

'brug yul gi mi dang skad - bhutanese [JV]

'brug shog - Bhutanese paper [IW]

'brog pa - pasture land people, herdsman, herdsmen of tibet, nomad, shepherd, nomadic tibetans who live in tents on the moors and upland valleys, southern buddhists belonging to the ‘brug pa sect, people of bhutan, nomad [JV]

sbas yul - bhutan, hidden country, (a kind of earthly paradise with peaceful and lucky landscapes) [JV]

mi rje mnga’ dag rin po che - title of the King of Bhutan [IW]

mon - Bhutan; Mon, a district in Tibet [RY]

mon - 1) Mon district; 2) border district [includes Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal but particularly between Kosi and Teesta rivers: name connotes hunter tribes] [IW]

mon kha ne’u ring - Meadow of M?nkha. Possibly identical with M?nkha Senge Dzong, a cave situated to the east of Bumthang in Bhutan which was used by Padmasambhava and later by Yeshe Tsogyal as a sacred place for the sadhana of Vajra Kilaya [RY]

mon kha seng ge rdzong - M?nkha Senge Dzong, in Bhutan [RY]

mon kha seng ge rdzong - M?nkha Senge Dzong. a cave situated to the east of Bumthang in Bhutan which was used by Padmasambhava and later by Yeshe Tsogyal as a sacred place for sadhana [RY]

mon gling - region in southeast Tibetan on the border with Bhutan [JV]

mon rta dbang - Ta Wang Raj [on borders of Bhutan inhabited by semi-TT people reachable only via Assam] [IW]

mon rta dbang - Ta Wang Raj [on borders of Bhutan {mon rta dbang - Ta Wang Raj [on borders of Bhutan {mon rta dbang - Ta Wang Raj [on borders of Bhutan [accessible only via Assam [IW]

mon rta dbang - small principality adjoining bhutan [JV]

mon pa - native of nepal or sikkim or bhutan [JV]

mon pa - M?npas, an ancient name for the Bhutanese people’s and for other eastern Himalayan tribes [RY]

mon pa gro - town and province in w. bhutan [JV]

mon pa ‘gro - town/ province pa ro [seat of govt in W Bhutan] [IW]

mon yul - Country of Mon (Bhutanese-Assam border) [RY]

smyos rabs - Nyo clan; in Bhutan [RY]

rtses rang - Chirang Bhutan [IW]

zhabs - 1) feet [h]; 2) [h] particle, honored, lord, pada SK?, honorable, venerable; 3) bottom part; 4) king of Bhutan [by Bhutanese] [IW]

zhabs - 1) feet [h]; 2) [h] particle, honored, lord, pada SK?, honorable, venerable; 3) bottom part; 4) king of Bhutan [IW]

zhabs kyi sku mgron - royal guests [Bhutan] [IW]

zhabs kyi drung ‘tsho - royal physician [Bhutan] [IW]

zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal - 1594-1651 - Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, one of the two incarnations of the fourth Drukchen, contributed to unite Bhutan as a state [RY]

zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal - Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, 1594-1651. The other reincarnation of ‘brug chen pad ma dkarpo, was born into the royal rgya family. He was the 18th Abbot of Ralung, the first ‘brug pa monastery to be established in Tibet. Following the prophecy of pad ma dkar po, zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal left for western Bhutan, where the ‘brug pa bka’ brgyud school had already been established, and founded the Cheri Monastery in 1619 in Thimphu valley. In 1629, he founded his first fortress, Dzong Simtokha, near Thimphu. As the temporal and spiritual ruler of Bhutan, zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgya unified Bhutan for the first time in its history. [tsd]

zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal - {zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal} [17th century founder of Bhutan] [IW]

zhabs drung ngag dbang rin po che - lineage of {zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal} [highest lama of Bhutan] [IW]

zhabs nas gnang ba’i bka’ - the king’s command [Bhutanese] [IW]

zhabs rogs srid tshab - three regent officials in Bhutan [IW]

zhabs rogs srid tshab - three regent officials in Bhutan [who rule until the king reaches majority age] [IW]

zla ‘od gzhon nu - candraprabhakumarabhuta [RY]

'on pya stag tshang - Tagtsang [Guru rinpoche’s tiger lair in Bhutan] [IW]

'on phu stag tshang - Onphu Taktsang; One of the thirteen Taktsang, or “Tiger Lairs”, sacred caves in Tibet and Bhutan blessed by Guru Rinpoche. He was in Yonpu Taktsang, situated high at the head of the Yonpu Valley, that Guru Padmasambhava gave to Khandro Yeshe Tsogyal, the empowerment of Vajra Kilaya [RY]

yang dag pa’i mtha’ - highest limit of reality; the true goal, True Goal, bhuta-koti. ultimate truth, emptiness. Syn {stong pa nyid, de bzhin nyid} [RY]

yang ‘dul lha khang bzhi - four temples for further taming. [According to the biography of dalai lama vii, established by king songtsen gampo at kongpo pucu, lhodrak khoting, camtrin degye, and cangdra dumtso. refer to m.V. Aris, Bhutan, pp. 15-32, and History, ch.3 note 11 [gdmk] [IW]

yongs ‘dzin ngag dbang grags pa - 16th cent. Bhutanese {gter ston} [RY]

ram ‘byams - {ram ‘byams} official rank in Bhutanese govt. [IW]

rong lcang - willow growing in sikkim or bhutan [JV]

rong yul - country of ravines, nepal, sikkim, bhutan [JV]

lus ‘brel zhu - to request body-link [especially in Bhutan] [RY]

lo kha brag - mountainous wild country ne of bhutan [JV]

sa khram chen po - land register records of Bhutan [IW]

sems rtogs kha - simtokha monastery in Bhutan [RY]

bsam grub ljongs khar - {bsam grub ljongs khar} Bhutan [IW]

bsam ljongs - {bsam grub ljongs khar} Bhutan [IW]

had - sudden blankness * Bhutan [IW]

had pa - person from Bhutan [IW]

has stag tshang - place in bhutan [JV]

hi ma la ya - [Skt] Himalaya Range [snow mt. range tallest/longest in the world in W T, in the W ci si than from the N edge, hin rdu &, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan distance spyi le 2450 &, width S-N spyi le 200-350, average el smi 6000, max Mt Everest, jo mo glang ma, smi 8848.13, in the N of the range is ti se gangs ri = la hi ma la ya byang ma] [IW]

hi ma la ya - [Skt] Himalaya Range [snow mt. range tallest/ longest in the world in W T, in the W ci si than from the N edge, hin rdu &, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan distance spyi le 2450 &, width S-N spyi le 200-350, average el smi 6000, max Mt Everest, jo mo glang ma, smi 8848.13, in the N of the range is ti se gangs ri = la hi ma la ya byang ma] [IW]

lho pa - southerner, tibetan tribes in sikkim and bhutan [JV]

lho brag - province of s. tibet bordering bhutan [JV]

lho ‘brug - Bhutan [RY]

lho ‘brug pa - thunderers or sect of buddhist inhabiting bhutan [JV]

lho ‘brug pa - a Bhutanese [IW]

One whose happiness is within, who is active within, who rejoices within and is illumined within, is actually the perfect mystic. He is liberated in the Supreme, and ultimately he attains the Supreme.

-Bhagavad-Gita As It Is 5.24

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