Removing the water from a reaction with a Dean-Stark water trap. 

The toluene what is a solvent in this case forms an azeotrope with water what boils at 84.1 °C while pure toluene boils at 110.8 °C and this azeotrope contains 79.8% toluene by weight, the rest is water. The mixture distills out from the flask, condenses down on a condenser (not on the picture, but its above the trap at the left side) and the water is collected in the trap, since it is not miscible with toluene and it has a higher density.

Did you know that in the chemical industry they dry almost everything with azeotropic water removal? Solid desiccants (magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, ect.) are non reusable and generate a lot waste, while solvents could be used several times and they remove every water what is present. The most often used solvents for drying is ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, toluene.

On 8/23/12 this once one man band, now fully staffed, Dogbreth brought some great Arizonan pop punk with folk punk elements to Davis, CA, reminiscent of their fellow statesmen Andrew Jackson Jihad, but with some more power pop riffage.

Dragons also provided some rad, mellow, folky, poppy jams from Arizona.

Davis’ own Young Mings played their second to last show this night.  They played a variety of pop/post punk, best likened to earlier Nick Cave, but with a more contemporary use of effects.

Finally Azeotropes is a one man pop punk/power pop machine that sounds like some sort of lofi bridge between the Toy Dolls and Green Day.


I’m reading about azeotropes (impurities in a liquid solution) and its relation to boiling point in my lab report thingy, and it’s really tough to get through because it phrases sentences in a way that uses the same word like a billion times in a paragraph. It’s taking me all morning to read 20 pgs of this stuff, but you know what.. I’ll be happy when I’m done.

All it simply says is that the boiling point decreases when there’s an impurity (i.e. BP of water is 100ºC and BP of ethanol is 78.1ºC, so pure water boils at 100ºC and pure ethanol boils at 78.1ºC). Azeotropes (i.e. 1:1 ratio or 50% of ethanol and water solution) have impurities, so their BP decreases. You can’t use simple distillation because the components/concentrations of the solution is the same as it is in vapor phase. So, when the 50:50 solution evaporates, the vapor will still have 50% of ethanol. They use benzene or some other shit to try and bond with the water molecules and distill that to separate water from the alcohol.

Haha, Idk why I’m writing this out on Tumblr. There’s a sort of relief knowing I can write about it here like I know my stuff well enough to explain it, I guess. Sometimes, I write out my essays in this text box. xD