anthozoa

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Flower Mushroom Coral - Ricordea yuma

Ricordea yuma (Corallimorpharia - Ricordeidae) is a species of soft coral belonging to a group commonly referred to as mushroom corals. These soft corals are very popular among aquarists due to their vibrant and varied color patterns. 

Ricordea yuma is found in the tropical Pacific. Like other Corallimopharians, this one has the ability to rapidly colonize available substrate.

References: [1] - [2] - [3]

Photo credits: [Top: ©Felix Salazar | Locality: nano reef tank, 2008] - [Bottom: ©Scott Cohen | Locality: reef tank, 2009]

Plerogyra sinuosa

Commonly known as the grape, bladder, pearl or branching bubble coral Plerogyra sinuosa is a species of “bubble coral” that is distributed throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from the Red Sea to the West and Central Pacific Ocean. P. sinuosa’s bubbles will vary in size and will increase/decrease depending on the amount of light available. With them being larger during the day and smaller at night, as it will make room for its tentacles to reach out to capture food.

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Anthozoa-Scleractinia-Caryophylliidae-Plerogyra-P. sinuosa

Image: RevolverOcelot

Corynactis viridis | ©João Pedro Silva   (Setubal, Portugal)

The jewel anemone is so-called because of its spectacular coloration. Individuals may be bright green, orange, red, pink or white and the tentacles and their tips are typically contrasting colours. The body of this anemone, correctly known as the ‘column’, is smooth, and has a rather squat appearance. Up to 100 tentacles, each terminating in a small swelling, are arranged in three rings around the mouth, which is situated at the top of a small cone. 

Sexual reproduction can lead to new color combinations of the tentacles and the oral disk. When anemones settle and grow in an area where they have good conditions (nutrient availability and available space) they can also reproduce asexually and create large patches of similar colored individuals.

Jewel anemones are frequent on south and west coasts as far north as northern Scotland; also occurs around southwest Europe and in the Mediterranean.

Animalia - Cnidaria - Anthozoa - Hexacorallia - Corallimorpharia - Corallimorphidae - Corynactis - C. viridis

[Source]

Anthopleura elegantissima, Aggregating Anemone | ©Marlin Harms (North Point, Morro Strand State Beach, Morro Bay, California, US)

This colonial anemone with tentacles greenish to pinkish, can be found on rocky, tide swept shores along the Pacific coast of North America.

An interesting fact of these anemones, recently studied, is that High-intertidal individuals are exposed aerially up to 18 h each day, unlike low-intertidal individuals which may be continuously immersed over many days [read more].

Animalia - Cnidaria - Anthozoa - Hexacorallia - Actiniaria - Actiniidae - Anthopleura - A. elegantissima

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GREENLAND’S FIRST CORAL REEF DISCOVERED

The reef is located off Cape Desolation, or Cape Brill, a cape south of the city of Ivittuut in Greenland. It lies at a depth of about 900 m in a spot with very strong currents.

The discovery was made by accident by a team of marine scientists aboard a Canadian research vessel, called CCGS Henry Larsen, when a large fragment of a living coral colony was entangled in an oceanography instrument.

The reef is formed by a species of cold-water coral called the eye-coral (Lophelia pertusa). It harbors plenty of different marine creatures including sponges, hydroids, polychaetes, crustaceans, bryozoans, and echinoderms.

According to the scientists, the discovery of a reef near Greenland was not entirely unexpected.

“There are coral reefs in the countries around Greenland and the effect of the Gulf Stream, which reaches the west coast, means that the sea temperature get up to about 4 degrees Celsius, which is warm enough for corals to thrive,” explained Ms Jørgensbye, who is a co-author of the article published in the journal ICES Insight

  • Image credit: Bedford Institute of Oceanography.
  • Reference: Tendal OS et al. 2013. Greenland’s first living deep-water coral reef. ICES Insight, no. 50, pp. 14-17

“Giant Green Anemone” (Anthopleura xanthogrammica)

Also known as the Green Surf Anemone, Green Anemone, Solitary Anemone, Rough Anemone, and the Giant Tidepool Anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica is a species of Actiniid sea anemone that inhabits low to mid intertidal zones in the Pacific Ocean, ranging from Alaska to Southern California and rarely down to Panama. Like other sea anemones A. xanthogrammica sports several nemoatocyst lined tentacles which are used to paralyze and capture prey that wanders too close. Phoyosynthetic algae of the genus Zoochlorella and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in the tissue and gut of A. xanthogrammica, in this symbiotic relationship they will provide nutrients to the anemone via photosynthesis (partly giving the anemone its green coloration) and in turn they get a safe place to reside. 

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Anthozoa-Hexacorallia-Actinaria-Nyantheae-Thenaria-Actiniidae-Anthopleura-A. xanthogrammica

Image: Stan Shebs

Starburst Anemone - Anthopleura sola

Anthopleura sola (Actiniaria - Actiniidae) is a solitary anemone up to 25 cm wide, with pale, variously colored tentacles with pink, lavender, or blue tips, arranged in five rings around the oral disk. 

The Starburst Anemone commonly lives on exposed rocky surfaces and in tidepools and crevices, in the middle intertidal zone of semiprotected rocky coastlines, and can be found in the Pacific Ocean, along the west coast of North America from Alaska to Baja California.

References: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©Douglass Moody | Locality: Royal Palms State Beach, San Pedro, California, US (2011)

While most corals grow as colonies in tropical waters, the Devonshire cup coral (Caryophyllia smithii) is solitary and lives in temperate parts of the ocean. It grows with its cup-shaped skeleton attached to a rock or even a shipwreck. When the tentacles are expanded, these tiny corals look just like anemones, with each tapering, transparent tentacle ending in a small knob. Devonshire cup coral often occurs in a variety of corals from white or orange.

(Photo source)

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“Flower Pot Coral” (Genus: Goniopora)

Goniopora is a genus of colonial stony coral which occurs in lagoons and areas with turbid water conditions throughout the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and various tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Like other colonial stony corals Goniopora spp. are carnivorous and will feed on passing invertebrates and organic matter which are caught by their stinging nematocysts. 

Classification

Animalia-Cnidaria-Anthozoa-Hexacorallia-Scleractinia-Portidae-Goniopora

Images: Peter Young Gho, MD and Gdiggers

Like a flower | ©Henrique Nascimento

An amazing photo of the colorful Jewel anemone, Corynactis viridis (Corallimorpharia - Corallimorphidae).

Although the meaning of its latin name (viridis) is green, the colour of the specimens is very variable, green, orange, red, etc.

Corynactis viridis is type species of the genus Corynactis, a colonial anthozoan similar in appearance to sea anemones and in body format to scleractinian stony corals, but belonging to the order Corallimorpharia (not to order Actiniaria). It occurs in Mediterranean Sea and around west Europe.

[Source].

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My range of mini notebooks with varying plain and grid paper stocks inside. Covers based on paintings/drawings of coral and printed on a variety of colours. Each notebook has a plain label box on the front cover and a description box on the back, which highlights the coral species and where it is primarily found within the oceans of the world. 

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Beadlet Anemone (Actinia equina)

…a species of sea anemone that can be found on the rocky coasts of the United Kingdom, Western Europe and the Mediterranean. This anemone is highly adapted to its environment and can thrive in high temperatures and dryness, some have even been found in areas with low salt. They also possess a ring of blue tentacles called acrorhagi which are used to fight off other anemones that attempt to invade their space.

Phylogeny

Animalia-Cnidaria-Anthozoa-Hexacorallia-Actiniaria-Actiniidae-Actinia-equina

Image Source(s)

Staghorn Coral (Acropora cervicornis)-

Conservation Status: Critically endangered

Threats: The main threat to most corals is climate change. Higher ocean temperatures lead to increased coral bleaching and higher susceptibility to disease. Staghorn coral populations have decreased by more than 80% since the 1980’s. 

(Source: Encyclopedia of Life)

(Image credit: Albert Kok)

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Anemone - Bolocera tuediae | ©Tony J. Gilbert

Bolocera tuediae is large sea anemone that can grow up to 300mm across tentacles. This large and distinctive anemone is capable of shedding its tentacles, pinching them off by muscular action, hence the groove at their bases. The reason for this is unknown.

Generally distributed throughout the north Atlantic, north to the Arctic Circle and east to north America, this species is recorded from all coasts of Britain but rare in south. 

The specimen shown is 25 cm in diameter. It was photographed in St.Abbs, Eyemouth, Scotland, UK. 

Cnidaria - Anthozoa - Actiniaria - Actiniidae - Bolocera - B. tuediae

More information.