END-PERMIAN (250 Ma) - “The Great Dying”

Severity: 1st worst

Cause: Eruption of Siberian Traps

Climate: Cold to extremely warm; ocean acidification and anoxia, ozone destruction

Aftermath: Permanent ecosystem reorganization; low O2 for >106 years

There’s good reason why the End-Permian extinction is referred to as “The Great Dying”; 95% of all marine families, 53% of all marine families, 84% of marine genera, and 70% of known land species went extinct,

The extinction likely occurred in three stages:
1. Land extinctions over ~40,000 yrs
2. Very abrupt marine extinctions
3. Second phase of land extinctions

Calcifying marine organisms such as brachiopods and bryozoa were the hardest hit, representative of ocean acidification. The last of the Cambrian fauna also died off, and this was the only known mass extinction of insects

So what exactly made the End-Permian extinction so severe? There truly was a perfect storm to make this the deadliest million years in Earth’s history.

Earth had been emerging from a moderate ice age when the largest flood basalt event in history (the Siberian Traps) occurred, which released vast amounts of CO2. The oceans then became increasingly warm, acidic, stratified, and euxinic from decaying organic matter. The atmosphere also became flooded with light (biogenically fixed) C, possibly from seafloor methane hydrates or from coal gas released as a result of heating from the Siberian Traps. Greenhouse gases soon caused global temperatures to spike, leading to massive extinction. Global euxinia in the oceans then became a severe problem, with sulfate reducing bacteria releasing large amounts of H2S, poisoning the oceans and atmosphere and thinning the ozone layer. These systems then created a cycle of positive feedbacks:
more die-offs → more euxinia → more H2S → more die-offs.

Marine ecosystems were forever changed after the extinction. Land ecosystems didn’t recover for ~5 My, and O2 levels remained low throughout much of Triassic time.

Click HERE to see all Mass Extinction Monday posts

why making leo fitz forget everything would be a poor decision

so, in the time since the season finale most of the speculation (and fiction) around Fitz has been to do with him being in a coma and waking up with no memory of the team and of Jemma. Personally I believe this is the worst route they could possibly take with Fitz’s character (as well as being almost Scientifically inaccurate). Full explanation (including science! under the read more)

Firstly, let’s look at what we know.

- His brain was without oxygen for several minutes. We do not know the extent to that, but we can gather he is suffering from Hypoxia/Anoxia. Hypoxia refers to a lack of oxygen in a general or specific area (in Fitz’s case, the brain) and Anoxia is complete and total lack of Oxygen (most severe). Prognosis depends on whether he experienced Hypoxia/Anoxia. I myself am taking the worst case scenario of Anoxia.

- Severe anoxia will result in coma. Longer the coma, more severe the consequences will be on waking. Some patients in a coma can move in to Persistent Vegetative State. They are highly unlikely to ever to achieve higher functions above a vegitative state. But considering comments by Iain and other cast members I don’t think this is likely.

- Anoxia can have several consequences that all depend on the severity of the condition. Several specific brain areas are more vulnerable to Anoxia leading to some distinct characteristics.

Read More

I’ve been tagged by blesser-seul

Rule 1: Always post the rules. Rule 2: Answer the questions the person who tagged you has written and write 10 new ones. Rule 3: Tag 10 people and link them to your post. Rule 4: Let them know you tagged them.

blesser-seul questions:

1. Favourite memory of your first year of high-school  not in high school yet

2. If you had a child what would you name it ? idk something like Kenny if its a boy and Vinna if its a girl

3. One regret you have ? Being lame

4. Whose the most important person to you ? My boyfriend

5. who is the lovliest follower you have? slutpsycho vaktsin s-exsea useliss and everyone else <3

6. What are your favourite clothes brands?  Topshop, insight, Roxy, Toy Machine.

7. Funniest moment you remember ? everytime when I’m with my boyfriend

8. Favourite movies? Alice in Wonderland, Lovely Bones.

9. Best books youve read, Why ? I don’t read books honestly.

10. What is your music style ?  Trance, Indie, Reggae.

kesal ‘s Questions:

1. Are you happy?

2. If you got a 1million dollars what would you spend it on?

3. if you get a chance to marry your boyfriend at your age now, would you?

4. your bestest friend you’ve ever had?

5. Would you ever do drugs?

6. What’s the best moment in your life?

7. Who do you want to be with right now?

8. What clothes are you wearing right now?

9. Favorite family member?

10. How old are you this year?

Vor lauter Hunger nicht einschlafen können, vor lauter dummen Kommentaren nicht essen können, vor lauter Komplexen nicht in den Spiegel gucken können, vor lauter Schuldgefühlen den Finger in den Hals stecken müssen, vor lauter Verzweiflung über Selbstmord nachdenken müssen, vor lauter Schmerzen Arme und Beine aufschlitzen müssen, vor lauter Hass nicht glücklich sein können, vor lauter Qualen nicht leben wollen.

Guys is my mental health worth the money I get from my job. Because I’m literally so unhappy and anoxia there.

anonymous said:

Page 78

There will be a ficlet coming within the next few days that features Cerebral Anoxia - a medical condition that can cause hallucinations of paranormal activity. When I can figure out a plot….

Send me a page number 5-557 and I will pick whatever is upon that page in “The Element Encyclopedia of Ghosts & Hauntings” to feature in a Supernatural fanfiction one shot/ficlet. And don’t be afraid to come off anon! I like to know who I’m dedicating to :D

anonymous said:

survivors form a rag-tag family mostly Sophie Flamels Francis Joan Machiavelli Billy Because if Sophie's love of clothes, slowly starts to develop a body image issue. Nicholas notes that shes losing too much weight in too short of time. He has Perry and Joan talk to her and they catch Sophies developing anoxia before the point of no return Reason is that of that she can't find clothes that both look good and feel good so they promise to make her pretty clothes Francis makes her jewelry


and mac picks out the best fabrics bc he totally knows everything about fashion since he prides himself on being more in with the century than most immortals

and billy is the most supportive cheerleader anyone could want, just compliments all the time