John Thomson 1837-1921 : Indiana Jones and social reformist

Autoportrait au côté de soldats mandchous, 1871, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif au collodion humide, Wellcome, National Librairy of Scotland. 

The man with the whiskers that we observe in this staging is John Thomson, an adventurer and photographer from a scottish wealthy family. Pioneer of social photography, through this self-portrait he illustrates the chinese society of his time, under the colonial influence held by the Manchus.

Born the same year Queen Victoria ascended to the throne, he will take most of his photographies during her reign and will end his carrier as the official photographer of the royal family. He will have this prestigious position until 1881. Among other photographies, he took this portrait in 1887.

Queen Victoria, 1887, Royal Collection. 

1. A man of technical and artistic abilities

John Thomson starts his education as the apprentice of a manufacturer of optical instruments. This training that he will end in 1858 will allow him to gain strong foundations in optic studies that will be very useful during his entire carrier. In this time he began to take an interest in photography and art. During two years he will also attend to night classes in the Watt Institution and School of Art. He will also take chemistry classes which will be very useful during his long journeys at the other side of the world where the access to chemical products is very difficult.

Since 1861 he is part of the  Royal Scottish Society of Art. Nevertheless, he decides to join his brother, William, also a photographer in Singapore.

2. A photographer and explorer

Rama IV, King Mongut, in royal attire on October 6, 1865,

When he arrives to Singapore, John works for a while with William in the manufacturing of instruments for the navy. But his passion is too strong and he decides to create his first photographic studio in the city under British influence. There he photographed european merchants and wealthy Singaporeans. Despite this activity, he takes time to travel and discovers Malaysia before moving to Siam where he opens a new studio. He photographs the king of Siam and members of his court.

He then opens a studio in Phnom Penh. He will continue his king photographies taking the king of Cambodia that will open the doors of Angkor, an archeological site that today is considered as world heritage by the UNESCO and was hardly accessible at that time. Despite the very dangerous travel, the difficulties transporting the very heavy photographical material, the chemical products necessaries and the fact that he narrowly escaped from the jungle fever, John Thomson manages to take many photographies of the site.

Interior of the western colonnade of a Temple at Nakhon Thom, Angkor Wat, Cambodia,1866, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif au collodion humide, Wellcome.

After that he goes back to London where he becomes member of the Royal Ethnological Society and of the Royal Geographical Society. He then publishes The Antiquities of Cambodia and goes back to Singapore. He travels to Saigon and Hong Kong where he will open a studio that will be his base during four years of expeditions at the heart of the Middle Kingdom. He will take an incredible amount of photographies and will give us a very detail representation of life and landscapes of China during the second half of 19th century.

Manchu Bride Peking, Penchilie Province, China, 1867,  Wellcome. 

    3. A social reformist with an sharpened lens

    After a first life bieing a great traveller, John Thomson goes back to Great Britain in 1872 to begin his life as a social reformist. He first settles for a time in Brixton and start writing on the art of photography for the British Journal of Photography and translates Gaston Tissandier book La photographie.

    At that time he became friends with Adolphe Smith, a journalist with whom he will create 12 publications of the magazine Street Life in London between 1876 and 1877. Between social documentary and photo-journalism, these publications present the life of people on the streets of London. The objective of the two authors is to change the system and to fight against poverty. It is a personal initiative contrary to the photographies taken by Thomas Annan, which make them more interesting. Each photography is taken accordingly to the woodburytype proceeding that we will discover in more detail on Friday. The magazine present the photographies telling the story of the characters that are represented. Smith and Thomson will develop the art of documentaries by involving more and more the readers of their magazines.  

    The Independent Bootblack - “the independent bootblack must always carry his box on his shoulders and only put it down when he has secured a customer.”, entre 1876 et 1877, woodburytype, Wellcome. 

    After this work that we will study in more details during the following days, John Thomson becomes member of the Royal Photographic Society. He will create a studio in the very prestigious Buckingham Palace Road before going to Mayfair in 1879. As we previously mentioned it, in 1881 he becomes the official photographer of the royal family of Great Britain. In 1886 he starts his carrier as a professor at the Royal Geographic Society. He will retire in 1910 but will keep on writing about photography until his death at the age of 84.

    Human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. Albumin constitutes about half of the blood serum protein, and transports hormones, fatty acids, and other compounds, buffers pH, and maintains osmotic pressure, among other functions.

    Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin, which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi vesicles to produce the secreted albumin.

    The reference range for albumin concentrations in serum is approximately 35 - 50 g/L (3.5 - 5.0 g/dL), and it has a serum half-life of approximately 20 days.

    Commonly available blood-pressure drug prevents epilepsy after brain injury

    Between 10 and 20 percent of all cases of epilepsy result from severe head injury, but a new drug promises to prevent post-traumatic seizures and may forestall further brain damage caused by seizures in those who already have epilepsy.

    A team of researchers from UC Berkeley, Ben-Gurion University in Israel and Charité-University Medicine in Germany reports in the current issue of the journal Annals of Neurology that a commonly used hypertension drug prevents a majority of cases of post-traumatic epilepsy in a rodent model of the disease. If independent experiments now underway in rats confirm this finding, human clinical trials could start within a few years.

    “This is the first-ever approach in which epilepsy development is stopped, as opposed to common drugs that try to prevent seizures once epilepsy develops,” said coauthor Daniela Kaufer, UC Berkeley associate professor of integrative biology and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute. “Those drugs have a very limited success and many side effects, so we are excited about the new approach.”

    The team, led by Kaufer; neurosurgeon Alon Friedman, associate professor of physiology and neurobiology at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; and Uwe Heinemann of the Charite, provides the first explanation for how brain injury caused by a blow to the head, stroke or infection leads to epilepsy. Based on 10 years of collaborative research, their findings point a finger at the blood-brain barrier – the tight wall of cells lining the veins and arteries in the brain that is breached after trauma.

    “This study for the first time offers a new mechanism and an existing, FDA-approved drug to potentially prevent epilepsy in patients after brain injuries or after they develop an abnormal blood-brain barrier,” Friedman said.

    The drug, losartan (Cozaar®), prevented seizures in 60 percent of the rats tested, when normally 100 percent of the rats develop seizures after injury. In the 40 percent of rats that did develop seizures, they averaged about one quarter the number of seizures typical for untreated rats. Another experiment showed that administration of losartan for three weeks at the time of injury was enough to prevent most cases of epilepsy in normal lab rats in the following months.

    “This is a very exciting result, telling us that the drug worked to prevent the development of epilepsy and not by suppressing the symptoms,” Kaufer said.

    Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier

    Kaufer and Friedman have been collaboratively investigating the effects of trauma on the brain since Kaufer was a graduate student in Israel 20 years ago. Throughout a postdoctoral position at Stanford University and after joining the UC Berkeley faculty in 2005, she maintained her interest in the blood-brain barrier, which normally protects the brain from potentially damaging chemicals or bacteria in the blood and prevents brain chemicals from leaking into the blood stream.

    She and Friedman showed earlier that breaking down the barrier causes inflammation and leads to the development of epilepsy. They pinned the effect to a single protein called albumin, the most common protein in blood serum.

    In 2009, they showed that albumin affects astrocytes, the brain’s support cells, by binding to the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) receptor. This initiates a cascade of steps that lead to localized inflammation, which appears to permanently damage the brain’s wiring, leading to the electrical misfiring characteristic of epilepsy. The current paper conclusively demonstrates that blocking the TGF-beta receptor with losartan stops that cascade and prevents the disorder.

    Drug’s side effect proves crucial

    Coauthor Guy Bar-Klein, a doctoral student at Ben-Gurion University, searched a long list of drugs before discovering losartan, which is approved to treat high blood pressure because it blocks the angiotensin receptor 1, but which incidentally also blocks TGF-β. It worked in the rats when delivered in their drinking water, which means that it somehow gets into the brain through the blood-brain barrier. The experiments suggest that the drug is unable to cross an intact blood-brain barrier, but reaches the brain through a breached barrier when it is most needed, Kaufer said.

    Friedman developed a protocol to use MRI to check whether the blood brain barrier has been breached, allowing doctors to give losartan as a preventive treatment, if necessary, after trauma. Kaufer said that the barrier may remain open for only a few weeks after injury, so the drug would not have to be given very long to prevent damage.

    “Right now, if someone comes to the emergency room with traumatic brain injury, they have a 10 to 50 percent chance of developing epilepsy, and epilepsy from brain injuries tends to be unresponsive to drugs in many patients.” she said. “I’m very hopeful that our research can spare these patients the added trauma of epilepsy.”

    Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918) Group of Bedouins from Jericho, albumin print, Maison Bonfils, ca. 1876-85 via

    O.G. Rejlander, à la  frontière de la photographie sociale

    ‘A night on the streets of London’ (Poor Joe), v. 1860, O.G. Rejlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide, 20X15cm, Rochester, Geroge Estman House. 

    1. La pauvreté comme sujet artistique

    Les progrès techniques de la révolution industrielle permettent la diffusion à grande échelle de romans comme ceux de Victor Hugo ou de Charles Dickens. L’un comme l’autre influencent les artistes de leur époque et il n’est pas surprenant de voir les photographes de la seconde moitié du XIX° siècle braquer leurs objectifs sur la misère des rues décrites par ces deux monuments de la littérature. 

    Les hommes de lettres comme ceux qui se cachent derrière le voile de leur chambre noire vivent dans des villes paupérisées par l’exode rurale. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que O.G. Rejlander choisisse de saisir à travers le medium photographique cette pauvreté qui marque son quotidien.

    Fatigué par son travail artistique sur la photographie par le procédé de collage qui lui demande énormément de travail, il les abandonne pour poursuivre son activité de portraitiste réalisant, dans un style documentaire, des portraits de gamins des rues. Le choix du sujet n’a rien de surprenant. En effet, d’après les écrits du réformateur social Heny Mayhew auteur de Travailleurs et pauvres à Londres (1851), il y aurait dans les rues de Londres entre 10 000 et 20 000 enfants de moins quinze ans vivant dans la misère. 

    A night in the streets of London, également connu sous le titre de Poor Joe, fait partie d’une série de portraits d’enfants des rues réalisée par O.G Rejlander. L’enfant est mis en scène, prostré sur les marches d’un escalier. Ce clair-obscur surprend par la richesse des détails qui le constitue. Le drapé des vêtements, la posture de l’enfant et la richesse des nuances de gris font de ce portrait un véritable tableau. Tout les éléments de cette composition sont choisis avec soin et la prise de vue est maîtrisée la perfection. Rien n’est laissé au hasard, ce qui contraste avec ce que l’on peut imaginer de la vie de l’enfant sujet de ce portrait. 

    On retrouve dans Poor Joe le rendu qui fait que l’on considère encore aujourd’hui O.G. Rejlander comme le père de la photographie d’art.  

    Urchins playing a Game. O.G. Rejlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide. 

    Autre exemple du travail de O.G. Rejlander sur la pauvreté, ces enfants jouant aux osselets semblent presque en mouvement. On retrouve ici l’illusion créée par les mises en scène de Charles Nègre dans ses photographies de rue mais avec une vision plus sentimentale des enfants. 

    2. la pauvreté mise en scène

    Nous savons d’après la note de l’historienne de l’art Stephanie Spencer que l’atelier de O.G. Rejlander, sur Malden Road, dans le nord de Londres était proche de Chalk Farm Ragged School for Boys. Cette institution se chargeait de donner le gîte et le couvert aux enfants des rues et de leur dispenser une éducation. Cela fait dire à l’historienne que : « les enfants des photos de Rejlander sont propres et bien nourris ; ce ne sont pas de vrais enfants des rues mais plutôt des petits pris en charge par une institution charitable. » 

    On sait également que le photographe fournit les habits aux enfants qu’ils met en scène. Il est connu pour demander aux passants de lui donner leurs habits pour ses réalisations. Sa représentation de la pauvreté est comparable à celle décrite par Charles Dickens dans Bleak House. O.G. Rejlander donne une image touchante des enfants pauvres et n’a pas peur d’ajouter une pointe d’humour à sa réalisation. Bien que le style soit proche du documentaire, la mise en scène et les enfants choisis pour être photographiés font que le travail de O.G. Rejlander reste plus proche de la réalisation artistique. 

    3. Des enfants comme sujet 

    Alice Liddell déguisée en mendiante, Charles Dodgson, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.

    Le fait de choisir des enfants comme modèle, en particulier lorsqu’ils n’ont pas de parents pour les protéger pose de nombreuses questions éthiques. Les questions de droit à l’image ne se pose pas encore dans l’Angleterre Victorienne. Toutefois, le regard que nous posons aujourd’hui sur ces enfants peut nous rendre mal à l’aise.

    L’intention de O.G. Rejlander est officiellement documentaire, mais la mise en scène qu’il choisit fait sortir ces photos de ce simple cadre. Il manipule notre regard et fait naître en nous un sentiment de mélancolie.

    Le choix fait par O.G Rejlander de photographier des enfants doit être remis dans son contexte. Le photographe est ami avec Irène Julia Margaret Cameron et Charles Dodgson (plus connu sous son nom de plume : Lewis Caroll). Tous deux pratiquent la photographie d’enfants. Ils posent comme modèles et leur permettent de dépeindre le monde de l’insouciance. Ces deux photographes prennent des clichés d’enfants parfois très peu vêtus ou tenant des postures choquantes pour l’époque et qui dérange encore l’observateur attentif.

    Une étude d’Alice Liddell déguisée en mendiante, peut nous aider à comprendre les raisons de la polémique au sujet de Lewis Carroll. Dans cette image le photographe nous donne à voir Alice Liddell, la petite fille pour qui il a écrit Alice au pays des merveilles. La jeune fille est à moitié dénudée. On peut voir ses jambes jusqu’au genoux et même un de tes tétons . Elle regarde l’objectif fixement et son regard froid nous mais presque mal à l’aise. La main qu’elle tient comme pour faire l’aumône mais trop près de son corps ainsi que son point posé sur sa hanche rappelle selon certains historiens de l’art la posture des jeunes prostituées londonienne. Le roman de Lewis Carroll, mis en relief par ses photographies entretient la polémique selon laquelle il eut été pédophile. Certains remette en cause cette interprétation en comparant ces photographies avec celle de Julia Margaret Cameron. Cette dernière met en scène ses propres filles, parfois dans des déshabillés, représentation particulièrement osée pour l’époque Victorienne. Ainsi les photographies prises par l’auteur d’Alice au Pays des Merveilles devraient être remis dans leur contexte. Notons toutefois qu’après cette série de photographie, les relations entre Charles Dodgson et la petite Alice cesserons brutalement, sans raison apparentes.

    4. La pauvreté et le sentimentalisme de O.G Rejlander 

    Hard Times, O.G. Rejlander, v. 1860, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.

    Nous l’avons vu, O.G Rejlander traite la pauvreté comme sujet d’art et avec un certain sentimentalisme. Cela ce voit dans l’ensemble de ses prises de vue et notamment dans Hard Times. Il illustre ici la condition de vie des travailleur pauvre. On y voit un père, outil à la main, le regard plongé dans de sombres pensées. Derrière lui l’on image que dorme sa femme et son enfant, devant partager un seul et unique lit. L’angoisse qu’éprouve le travailleur pauvre le tient peut être en éveil. Si l’homme est visiblement un travailleur physique, il est dans une tenue propre bien que simple. O.G. donne ainsi une représentation esthétique et artificielle de la pauvreté.

    Cette représentation tranche avec celle de certains de ses contemporains. On peut notamment citer le travail réalisé par Thomas John Barnes pour le compte du Dr Barnardo. La collaboration de ces deux hommes donne naissance à une première vague de communication dans un but de récolter des fonds et utilisant pour médium la photographie. La pratique des deux hommes, mettant en scène des enfants de l’institution pour laquelle ils œuvrent fera l’objet de nombreuses critiques déjà à leur époque. Thomas John Barnes réalise des montages de photographies, la première présentant en enfant des rues dans une mise en scène apitoyante et la seconde montrant le même enfant travaillant dans des habits neufs.

    Ce travail quasi-publicitaire se distingue du travail esthétique de O.G Rejlander. Dans la même période historique on peut relever l’approche proposée par Alice Austen qui photographie  ses sujets en conservant dans dans leur représentation toute la dignité que l’on doit reconnaître en chaque être humain.

    Alice Austen.

    managed to get into college today but only briefly, my stomach is killing me, my whole body aches and my albumin is the lowest its ever been so im swelling all over and nothing fits me this is horrible :(

    Bottle Jaw

    Seeing as the Helminthology test is over, to celebrate here is a picture of intermandibular oedema (better known as bottle jaw).

    This accumulation of fluid in the intermandibular space is primarily associated with Haemonchus contortus (wireworm) infections. This species of round worm is particularly a problem in South Africa because of wide spread anthelmintic resistance.

    Keep reading

    ABRAXANE® Approved by European Commission for First-Line Treatment of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NewsPr

    ABRAXANE® Approved by European Commission for First-Line Treatment of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Business Wire India

    Celgene International Sàrl, a wholly owned subsidiary of Celgene Corporation (NASDAQ: CELG), announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved ABRAXANE® (paclitaxel formulated as albumin-bound nanoparticles, or nab-paclitaxel) in combination with carboplatin for the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in adult patients who are not candidates for potentially curative surgery and/or radiation therapy.

    The ABRAXANE Marketing Authorisation has been updated across 28 member states in the European Union to include this new indication in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adding to the existing indications for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic and breast cancers.

    Lung cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women, however it is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Europe. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for 85 to 90% of all cases. The predominant cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking, although environmental and occupational factors also can cause the cancer.

    The EC decision follows the positive CHMP opinion received on 23 January and is based on the results of a multicenter, randomized, open-label study including 1,052 chemotherapy-naive patients with Stage IIIb/IV non-small cell lung cancer. The study compared ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin versus solvent-based paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The primary efficacy endpoint, overall response rate, was significantly higher for patients in the ABRAXANE/carboplatin arm at 33%, compared with patients in the control arm, at 25%. The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin for NSCLC were anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue.

    Tuomo Pätsi, President of Celgene in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), said, “At Celgene, we are pleased that the EC’s approval of ABRAXANE in NSCLC allows patients in Europe who have been diagnosed with this devastating disease to access this innovative nanotechnology medicine. The expanded application of ABRAXANE across three difficult to treat tumors – breast, pancreatic and lung cancers – reinforces the value ABRAXANE provides and our commitment to advance transformational science, deliver life-enhancing medicines and serve patients with cancers the world over.”

    About ABRAXANE® (nab-paclitaxel)

    ABRAXANE® is a nanotechnology agent that is currently the only albumin-based nanotechnology therapy approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer in the United States, Europe and other markets around the world. It contains albumin-bound paclitaxel nanoparticles and is manufactured using patented nab® technology. ABRAXANE is formulated with albumin, a human protein, and is free of solvents.

    ABRAXANE was first approved in January 2005 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline unless clinically contraindicated. In Europe, ABRAXANE was approved in January 2008 as monotherapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in adult patients who have failed first-line treatment for metastatic disease and for whom standard, anthracycline containing therapy is not indicated. ABRAXANE is now approved in more than 50 countries for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

    In October 2012, ABRAXANE was approved by the FDA for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in combination with carboplatin, in patients who are not candidates for curative surgery or radiation therapy. ABRAXANE is also approved for the treatment of NSCLC in Argentina, Australia, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand and Singapore.

    In September 2013, the FDA approved ABRAXANE as first–line treatment of patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, in combination with gemcitabine. In December 2013, ABRAXANE in combination with gemcitabine was approved for first-line treatment of adultpatients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in Europe. ABRAXANE is also approved for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer in more than 40 countries.

    Please refer to the Summary of Product Characteristics for full European prescribing information.

    U.S. Regulatory Information for ABRAXANE


    • Do not administer ABRAXANE therapy to patients who have baseline neutrophil counts of less than 1500 cells/mm3. In order to monitor the occurrence of bone marrow suppression, primarily neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, it is recommended that frequent peripheral blood cell counts be performed on all patients receiving ABRAXANE
    • Note: An albumin form of paclitaxel may substantially affect a drug’s functional properties relative to those of drug in solution. DO NOT SUBSTITUTE FOR OR WITH OTHER PACLITAXEL FORMULATIONS



    Neutrophil Counts

    • ABRAXANE should not be used in patients who have baseline neutrophil counts of <1500 cells/mm3


    • Patients who experience a severe hypersensitivity reaction to ABRAXANE should not be rechallenged with the drug


    Hematologic Effects

    • Bone marrow suppression (primarily neutropenia) is dose-dependent and a dose-limiting toxicity of ABRAXANE. In clinical studies, Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 34% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), 47% of patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 38% of patients with pancreatic cancer
    • Monitor for myelotoxicity by performing complete blood cell counts frequently, including prior to dosing on Day 1 (for MBC) and Days 1, 8, and 15 (for NSCLC and for pancreatic cancer)
    • Do not administer ABRAXANE to patients with baseline absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) of less than 1500 cells/mm3
    • In the case of severe neutropenia (<500 cells/mm3 for 7 days or more) during a course of ABRAXANE therapy, reduce the dose of ABRAXANE in subsequent courses in patients with either MBC or NSCLC
    • In patients with MBC, resume treatment with every-3-week cycles of ABRAXANE after ANC recovers to a level >1500 cells/mm3 and platelets recover to a level >100,000 cells/mm3
    • In patients with NSCLC, resume treatment if recommended at permanently reduced doses for both weekly ABRAXANE and every-3-week carboplatin after ANC recovers to at least 1500 cells/mm3 and platelet count of at least 100,000 cells/mm3 on Day 1 or to an ANC of at least 500 cells/mm3 and platelet count of at least 50,000 cells/mm3 on Days 8 or 15 of the cycle
    • In patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, withhold ABRAXANE and gemcitabine if the ANC is less than 500 cells/mm3 or platelets are less than 50,000 cells/mm3 and delay initiation of the next cycle if the ANC is less than 1500 cells/mm3 or platelet count is less than 100,000 cells/mm3 on Day 1 of the cycle. Resume treatment with appropriate dose reduction if recommended

    Nervous System

    • Sensory neuropathy is dose- and schedule-dependent
    • The occurrence of Grade 1 or 2 sensory neuropathy does not generally require dose modification
    • If ≥ Grade 3 sensory neuropathy develops, withhold ABRAXANE treatment until resolution to Grade 1 or 2 for MBC or until resolution to ≤ Grade 1 for NSCLC and pancreatic cancer followed by a dose reduction for all subsequent courses of ABRAXANE


    • Sepsis occurred in 5% of patients with or without neutropenia who received ABRAXANE in combination with gemcitabine
    • Biliary obstruction or presence of biliary stent were risk factors for severe or fatal sepsis
    • If a patient becomes febrile (regardless of ANC), initiate treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics
    • For febrile neutropenia, interrupt ABRAXANE and gemcitabine until fever resolves and ANC ≥1500 cells/mm3, then resume treatment at reduced dose levels


    • Pneumonitis, including some cases that were fatal, occurred in 4% of patients receiving ABRAXANE in combination with gemcitabine
    • Monitor patients for signs and symptoms and interrupt ABRAXANE and gemcitabine during evaluation of suspected pneumonitis
    • Permanently discontinue treatment with ABRAXANE and gemcitabine upon making a diagnosis of pneumonitis


    • Severe and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions, have been reported
    • Patients who experience a severe hypersensitivity reaction to ABRAXANE should not be rechallenged with this drug

    Hepatic Impairment

    • Because the exposure and toxicity of paclitaxel can be increased with hepatic impairment, administration of ABRAXANE in patients with hepatic impairment should be performed with caution
    • Patients with hepatic impairment may be at an increased risk of toxicity, particularly from myelosuppression, and should be monitored for development of profound myelosuppression
    • For MBC and NSCLC, the starting dose should be reduced for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment
    • For pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ABRAXANE is not recommended for patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin >1.5 x ULN and AST ≤10 x ULN)

    Albumin (Human)

    • ABRAXANE contains albumin (human), a derivative of human blood

    Use in Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category D

    • ABRAXANE can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman
    • If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus
    • Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving ABRAXANE

    Use in Men

    • Men should be advised not to father a child while receiving ABRAXANE


    Randomized Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC) Study

    • The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) with single-agent use of ABRAXANE vs paclitaxel injection in the MBC study are alopecia (90%, 94%), neutropenia (all cases 80%, 82%; severe 9%, 22%), sensory neuropathy (any symptoms 71%, 56%; severe 10%, 2%), abnormal ECG (all patients 60%, 52%; patients with normal baseline 35%, 30%), fatigue/asthenia (any 47%, 39%; severe 8%, 3%), myalgia/arthralgia (any 44%, 49%; severe 8%, 4%), AST elevation (any 39%, 32%), alkaline phosphatase elevation (any 36%, 31%), anemia (any 33%, 25%; severe 1%, <1%), nausea (any 30%, 22%; severe 3%, <1%), diarrhea (any 27%, 15%; severe <1%, 1%) and infections (24%, 20%), respectively
    • Sensory neuropathy was the cause of ABRAXANE discontinuation in 7/229 (3%) patients
    • Other adverse reactions of note with the use of ABRAXANE vs paclitaxel injection included vomiting (any 18%, 10%; severe 4%, 1%), fluid retention (any 10%, 8%; severe 0%, <1%), mucositis (any 7%, 6%; severe <1%, 0%), hepatic dysfunction (elevations in bilirubin 7%, 7%), hypersensitivity reactions (any 4%, 12%; severe 0%, 2%), thrombocytopenia (any 2%, 3%; severe <1%, <1%), neutropenic sepsis (<1%, <1%), and injection site reactions (<1%, 1%), respectively. Dehydration and pyrexia were also reported
    • Renal dysfunction (any 11%, severe 1%) was reported in patients treated with ABRAXANE (n=229)
    • In all ABRAXANE-treated patients (n=366), ocular/visual disturbances were reported (any 13%; severe 1%)
    • Severe cardiovascular events possibly related to single-agent ABRAXANE occurred in approximately 3% of patients and included cardiac ischemia/infarction, chest pain, cardiac arrest, supraventricular tachycardia, edema, thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary emboli, and hypertension
    • Cases of cerebrovascular attacks (strokes) and transient ischemic attacks have been reported

    Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Study

    • The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin are anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, and fatigue
    • The most common serious adverse reactions of ABRAXANE in combination with carboplatin for NSCLC are anemia (4%) and pneumonia (3%)
    • The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of ABRAXANE are neutropenia (3%), thrombocytopenia (3%), and peripheral neuropathy (1%)
    • The most common adverse reactions resulting in dose reduction of ABRAXANE are neutropenia (24%), thrombocytopenia (13%), and anemia (6%)
    • The most common adverse reactions leading to withholding or delay in ABRAXANE dosing are neutropenia (41%), thrombocytopenia (30%), and anemia (16%)
    • The following common (≥10% incidence) adverse reactions were observed at a similar incidence in ABRAXANE plus carboplatin–treated and paclitaxel injection plus carboplatin–treated patients: alopecia (56%), nausea (27%), fatigue (25%), decreased appetite (17%), asthenia (16%), constipation (16%), diarrhea (15%), vomiting (12%), dyspnea (12%), and rash (10%); incidence rates are for the ABRAXANE plus carboplatin treatment group
    • Adverse reactions with a difference of ≥2%, Grade 3 or higher, with combination use of ABRAXANE and carboplatin vs combination use of paclitaxel injection and carboplatin in NSCLC are anemia (28%, 7%), neutropenia (47%, 58%), thrombocytopenia (18%, 9%), and peripheral neuropathy (3%, 12%), respectively
    • Adverse reactions with a difference of ≥5%, Grades 1-4, with combination use of ABRAXANE and carboplatin vs combination use of paclitaxel injection and carboplatin in NSCLC are anemia (98%, 91%), thrombocytopenia (68%, 55%), peripheral neuropathy (48%, 64%), edema peripheral (10%, 4%), epistaxis (7%, 2%), arthralgia (13%, 25%), and myalgia (10%, 19%), respectively
    • Neutropenia (all grades) was reported in 85% of patients who received ABRAXANE and carboplatin vs 83% of patients who received paclitaxel injection and carboplatin

    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Study

    • Among the most common (≥20%) adverse reactions in the phase III study, those with a ≥5% higher incidence in the ABRAXANE/gemcitabine group compared with the gemcitabine group are neutropenia (73%, 58%), fatigue (59%, 46%), peripheral neuropathy (54%, 13%), nausea (54%, 48%), alopecia (50%, 5%), peripheral edema (46%, 30%), diarrhea (44%, 24%), pyrexia (41%, 28%), vomiting (36%, 28%), decreased appetite (36%, 26%), rash (30%, 11%), and dehydration (21%, 11%)
    • Of these most common adverse reactions, those with a ≥2% higher incidence of Grade 3-4 toxicity in the ABRAXANE/gemcitabine group compared with the gemcitabine group, respectively, are neutropenia (38%, 27%), fatigue (18%, 9%), peripheral neuropathy (17%, 1%), nausea (6%, 3%), diarrhea (6%, 1%), pyrexia (3%, 1%), vomiting (6%, 4%), decreased appetite (5%, 2%), and dehydration (7%, 2%)
    • Thrombocytopenia (all grades) was reported in 74% of patients in the ABRAXANE/gemcitabine group vs 70% of patients in the gemcitabine group
    • The most common serious adverse reactions of ABRAXANE (with a ≥1% higher incidence) are pyrexia (6%), dehydration (5%), pneumonia (4%), and vomiting (4%)
    • The most common adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation of ABRAXANE were peripheral neuropathy (8%), fatigue (4%), and thrombocytopenia (2%)
    • The most common adverse reactions resulting in dose reduction of ABRAXANE are neutropenia (10%) and peripheral neuropathy (6%)
    • The most common adverse reactions leading to withholding or delay in ABRAXANE dosing are neutropenia (16%), thrombocytopenia (12%), fatigue (8%), peripheral neuropathy (15%), anemia (5%), and diarrhea (5%)
    • Other selected adverse reactions with a ≥5% higher incidence for all-grade toxicity in the ABRAXANE/gemcitabine group compared to the gemcitabine group, respectively, are asthenia (19%, 13%), mucositis (10%, 4%), dysgeusia (16%, 8%), headache (14%, 9%), hypokalemia (12%, 7%), cough (17%, 7%), epistaxis (15%, 3%), urinary tract infection (11%, 5%), pain in extremity (11%, 6%), arthralgia (11%, 3%), myalgia (10%, 4%), and depression (12%, 6%)
    • Other selected adverse reactions with a ≥2% higher incidence for Grade 3-4 toxicity in the ABRAXANE/gemcitabine group compared to the gemcitabine group are thrombocytopenia (13%, 9%), asthenia (7%, 4%), and hypokalemia (4%, 1%)

    Postmarketing Experience With ABRAXANE and Other Paclitaxel Formulations

    • Severe and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with ABRAXANE. The use of ABRAXANE in patients previously exhibiting hypersensitivity to paclitaxel injection or human albumin has not been studied
    • There have been reports of congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and atrioventricular block with ABRAXANE, primarily among individuals with underlying cardiac history or prior exposure to cardiotoxic drugs
    • There have been reports of extravasation of ABRAXANE. Given the possibility of extravasation, it is advisable to monitor closely the ABRAXANE infusion site for possible infiltration during drug administration


    • Caution should be exercised when administering ABRAXANE concomitantly with medicines known to inhibit or induce either CYP2C8 or CYP3A4


    Nursing Mothers

    • It is not known whether paclitaxel is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother


    • The safety and effectiveness of ABRAXANE in pediatric patients have not been evaluated


    • No toxicities occurred notably more frequently among patients ≥65 years of age who received ABRAXANE for MBC
    • Myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathy, and arthralgia were more frequent in patients ≥65 years of age treated with ABRAXANE and carboplatin in NSCLC
    • Diarrhea, decreased appetite, dehydration, and epistaxis were more frequent in patients 65 years or older compared with patients younger than 65 years old who received ABRAXANE and gemcitabine in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Renal Impairment

    • There are insufficient data to permit dosage recommendations in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (estimated creatinine clearance <30 mL/min)


    • Do not administer ABRAXANE to any patient with total bilirubin greater than 5 x ULN or AST greater than 10 x ULN
    • For MBC and NSCLC, reduce starting dose in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment
    • For adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, do not administer ABRAXANE to patients who have moderate to severe hepatic impairment
    • Dose reductions or discontinuation may be needed based on severe hematologic, neurologic, cutaneous, or gastrointestinal toxicity
    • Monitor patients closely

    Please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed WARNING.

    About Celgene

    Celgene International Sàrl, located in Boudry, in the Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, is a wholly-owned subsidiary and International Headquarters of Celgene Corporation. Celgene Corporation, headquartered in Summit, New Jersey, is an integrated global biopharmaceutical company engaged primarily in the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative therapies for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases through gene and protein regulation. For more information, please visit the Company’s website at Follow Celgene on Social Media: @CelgenePinterestLinkedIn and YouTube.


    O.G. Rejlander, un fotógrafo subjetivo

         1. Una reflexiónsobre la fotografía social

    Rejlander et les colporteurs, vers 1862-1868, O.G Rjlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.   

    Lo vimos a lo largo de esta semana, O.G. Rejlander no es simplemente un retratista de gran talento, es también un artista completo y comprometido en las nuevas reflexiones al rededor de la utilización de la fotografia como medio de expresión artístico.

    La representación « del otro » en fotografía es problemática ya que reenvía, en teoría, a una imagen fiel de la persona fotografiada y de la situación en un momento dado. Lo vimos, la representación fiel tiene consecuencias para los espectadores. Si la sociedad victoriana acepta la representación de desnudos en pinturas, cuando O.G. Rejlander propone The two ways of life, causa escándalo.

    O.G. Rejlander es maestro del arte de la escenificación. Sabe jugar con las poses de sus sujetos. Utiliza un collage de diferentes diapositivas para construir obras complejas que dejan al observador perplejo.

    Por la elección de escenificaciones y el uso de diferentes técnicas fotográficas, O.G. Rejlander prueba con ejemplos, que el medio fotográfico puede ser utilizado para representar lo imaginario. Este pone en tela de juicio el aspecto estrictamente técnico de la fotografía, que es entonces utilizada para la representación de lo real.

    Esta posibilidad de falsificar la realidad es un elemento importante que debemos tener presente al observar una fotografía. Esto se aplica particularmente a la fotografía social.

    Por su trabajo sobre los trabajadores pobre y los niños viviendo en la calle, O.G. Rejlander elige el sentimentalismo. Crea fotografías que reenvían directamente al mundo de Charles Dickens. Así manipule las imágenes, lo hace con un propósito artístico. Para nosotros, escenificar y fotografiar a niños de esta manera puede parecer dudoso. Este sentimiento existe también en esa época pero plantea cuestiones morales y se confunde también con la suspicion de las relaciones sulfurosas entre el fotógrafo y sus modelos femeninos que posan desnudas. Así O.G. Rejlander afirme solo usar actores de teatros para sus realizaciones de desnudos, sus oponentes afirman que se tratan de prostitutas.

    O.G. Rejlander muestra a niños viviendo en la calle, pero estos aparecen limpios y a veces representados en actividades lucrativas. No debemos olvidar que el trabajo de los niños no está prohibido en la época victoriana. Al contrario es muy común en las clases pobres obreras y campesinas. La defensa del derecho de los niños esta a penas en sus comienzos. Ademas, el trabajo de los niños es percibido como « moral » ya que los aleja de la vagancia, de la mendicidad, del robo y hasta de la prostitución.

    Representar a niños no es una elección anodina para el fotógrafo victoriano. Este personaje permite traducir la realidad social de la época. Sin embargo, si Rejlander hace esta elección es porque fotografiar a niños va mas allá de la simple realidad social. Podemos pensar que el echo que los niños sean fotogénicos permite escenificaciones criticas de su rol social y por extensión del de la sociedad entera. Los niños son adultos en miniatura, pero en la imaginación colectiva todavía no han sido corrompidos por la sociedad moderna. El contraste entre la situación y la supuesta ingenuidad, puede resultar en un interesante desfase, incluso hasta crear un cierto malestar en el espectador.

    It won’t rain today,1865, O.G Rjlandder, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide, 20.8x16.5, the J.Paul Getty Museum.

         2. Un actor de la fotografía de documental

    I) héliographie de O.G. Rejander 2) Illustration du travail du Dr Duchenne de Boulogne, The Expression of the emotions of man and animals, Charles Darwin, 1872, ed John Murray. 

    Al colaborar con la obra de Charles Darwin, Rejlander parece utilizar la fotografía como una herramienta de reproducción de lo real. Pareciera que fuera un regreso al origen de la fotografía para el artista. Sin embargo, incluso con este trabajo, muestra que puede ser una herramienta ampliamente manipublable.

    Es antes que todo una búsqueda de reconocimiento artístico y no científico que motiva a Rejlander. Sin embargo, participa a la reflexión de Darwin sobre la representación de las emociones humanas. Su enfoque subjetivo de la foto y su capacidad de manipulación de la imagen para la escenificación son falsas apariencias al servicio de la realidad de las emociones.

    Double Self-Portrait, 1872, O.G Rjlandder, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.    

     3. Uno de los defensores de la fotografía de arte

    Allegory, entre 1850 et 1859, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide,46.7×12.4 cm.   

    Si O.G Rejlander es reconocido como el « padre » de la fotografía artística, es gracias a su capacidad de hacer de la fotografía un medio tan maleable como un pincel.

    Esta cualidad la comparte con algunos de sus contemporáneos como Charles Nègre, que ya hemos presentado esta semana, pero también con Le Gray que hemos mencionado en diversas ocasiones. Sin embargo, la complejidad de las composiciones de O.G. Rejlander lo distingue de los demás. Lleva la subjetividad de este medio al limite. Podemos encontrar un artista similar en la persona de Henry Robinson. Este ultimo será criticado por sus contemporáneos por las mismas razones. Dirán especialmente de su obra mas conocida, Fading Away, que es « muy mórbida y dolorosamente intima para ser una representación fotográfica ».

    Fading Away (1858), Henry Robinson, épreuve albuminée au sel d’argent d’après un négatif verre, 23.8 x 37.2 cm,The Royal Photographic Society at the National Media Museum, Bradford, United Kingdom.

    Fuentes complementarias :

    O.G. Rejlander, le photographe subjectif

         1. Une réflexion sur la photographie sociale

    Rejlander et les colporteurs, vers 1862-1868, O.G Rjlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.   

    Nous l’avons vu tout au long de cette semaine, O.G. Rejlander, n’est pas simplement un portraitiste de talent mais aussi un artiste complet et engagé dans les  réflexions naissantes qui entourent son médium d’expression artistique.

    La représentation de l’autre en photographie pose problème dans la mesure où elle renvoie, en théorie, une image fidèle de la personne photographiée et de sa situation à un moment donné. On l’a vu, cette représentation fidèle n’est pas sans conséquence sur les spectateurs. Si la société victorienne accepte sans broncher les représentations de nus en peinture, lorsque O.G. Rejlander propose son Two Ways of life, il choque.

    O.G. Rejlander est maître de l’art de la mise en scène. Il sait jouer sur les poses de ses sujets.  Il utilise le collage de différents diapositifs pour construire des œuvres complexes, qui rendent l’observateur perplexe. 

    Par le choix de ses mises en scènes et l’emploi de différentes techniques photographiques, O.G. Rejlander, prouve par l’exemple que le medium photographique peut être utilisé pour dépeindre l’imaginaire. Cela remet en cause l’aspect strictement technique de la photographie qui était alors utilisée pour représenter le réel.

    Cette possibilité de contrefaire la réalité est un élément important que chacun doit garder à l’esprit en regardant une photographie. Cela est particulièrement vrai en matière de photographie sociale.

    Pour son travail sur les travailleurs pauvres et les enfants des rue, O.G Rejlander fait le choix du sentimentalisme. Il créé des photographies qui renvoient directement à l’imaginaire de Charles Dickens. Certes, il manipule les images mais dans un but artistique. A nos yeux, mettre en scène  et photographier ainsi des enfants peut paraitre suspect. Ce sentiment existe également à l’époque mais porte avant tout sur des questions morales et se calque sur la suspicion de relation sulfureuse entre photographe et modèles féminins nus. Et bien que O.G Rejlander affirme faire appel aux services de gens de théâtre pour réaliser ses nus, ses détracteurs affirmes, qu’il s’agit de prostituer.

    O.G. Rejlander montre des enfants des rues, mais des enfants propres et parfois mis en scène dans des activités lucratives. Il ne faut pas oublier que le travail des enfants n’était pas interdit à l’époque victorienne et même très répandu dans les classes pauvres ouvrières ou paysannes. La défense des droits des enfants n’en était qu’à ses balbutiements. D’ailleurs le travail des enfants est bien souvent vu comme plus “moral” car il les détourne du vagabondage, de la mendicité, des larcins voire de la prostitution.

    Représenter des enfants n’est pas un choix anodin pour le photographe victorien. Ce personnage permet de traduire la réalité sociale de l’époque. Toutefois, si Rejlander fait ce choix c’est bien que photographier des enfants va au delà de la simple réalité sociale. On peut penser que la photogénie des enfants permet des mises en scène critiques de leur rôle social et par extension de la société toute entière. Les enfants sont des adultes en miniature, mais dans l’imaginaire collectif ils ne sont pas encore corrompus par la société moderne. Le contraste entre situation et ingénuité supposée, peut donner un décalage intéressant, voire créer un malaise chez le spectateur.

    It won’t rain today,1865, O.G Rjlandder, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide, 20.8x16.5, the J.Paul Getty Museum.

         2. Un acteur de la photographie documentaire

    I) héliographie de O.G. Rejander 2) Illustration du travail du Dr Duchenne de Boulogne, The Expression of the emotions of man and animals, Charles Darwin, 1872, ed John Murray. 

    Lorsqu’il collabore à l’oeuvre de Charles Darwin, Rejlander semble utiliser la photographier comme outil de reproduction du réel. Il s’agirait d’un retour à l’origine de la photographie pour l’artiste. Mais, même dans ce travail il montre que cet outil peut être largement manipulé. 

    C’est avant tout une recherche de reconnaissance artistique et non “scientifique” qui motive Rejlander. Pourtant il participe à la réflexion de Darwin sur la représentation des émotions humaines. Son approche subjective de la photo et sa capacité de manipulation de l’image par la mise en scène, sont des faux semblants au service de la réalité des émotions.

    Double Self-Portrait, 1872, O.G Rjlandder, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.    

     3. Un des avocats dela photographie d’art 

    Allegory, entre 1850 et 1859, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide,46.7×12.4 cm.   

    Si O.G Rejlander est encore aujourd’hui considéré comme le “Père” de la photographie artistique c’est grâce à sa capacité à rendre se médium aussi malléable que la brosse d’un pinceau. 

    Cette qualité, il la partage avec certains de ses contemporains dont Charles Nègre que nous avons étudier la semaine passée ou encore Le Gray que nous avons mentionné à de nombreuses reprises. Toutefois, la complexité des compositions de O.G. Rejlander le met à part. Il pousse la subjectivité de ce médium dans ses retranchements. On lui trouve toutefois un égal en la personne de Henry Robinson. Ce dernier fera l’objet des mêmes critiques de la part de ses contemporains. On dira notamment au sujet de son oeuvre la plus connue : Fading Away, considérée comme “trop morbide et douloureusement intime pour faire l’objet d’une représentation photographique”.

    Fading Away (1858), Henry Robinson, épreuve albuminée au sel d’argent d’après un négatif verre, 23.8 x 37.2 cm,The Royal Photographic Society at the National Media Museum, Bradford, United Kingdom.

    Sources complémentaires :

    The Clinical Laboratory study “Serum ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with fibromyalgia" found that malondialdehyde “levels of fibromyalgia patients were significantly higher than they were in the control group,” which “could be considered as a sign of increased oxidative stress.”

    O.G. Rejlander “father” of artistic photography

    The Two ways of life, 1857, épreuve au charbon d’après épreuves papier albuminé originale, 40,5x78 cm, Bradford, National Media Museum, Royal Photograhpic Society Collection. 

    If we had to chose only one image to illustrate thebeginning of photography in the artistic world it would certainly be this one.

    Photography is used by numerous artists since its apparition but is perceived as tool for inspiration more than as an artistic realisation. Photography allows to represent an image very similar to reality and can be used by the painter to create a masterpiece.

    Some artists find in photography a tool, like a paintbrush, allowing to create an artistic work. The recognition of this medium as a possible support for artistic expression will become a struggle that continues today. Refused in art expositions, photography is first presented to the public only as a result of a technical progress.

    With The two ways of life, O.G. Rejlander proves through practice, that photography can be used directly as a way of expressing the artist imagination. This work of art proves that photography can be used to represent with great precision the reality as well as the «imaginary».

    Through this allegory, O.G. Rejlander depicts the foils (frivolity, prostitution, gaming) and virtues (the man of science, the devoted women, and the one reading) of society. It’s a critic of idleness and a valorisation of expected behaviours in the Victorian society.

    This photographic « tableau » questions the contemporary artists of O.G. Rejlander in many aspects that we will mention below.

    La Grande Vague, Sète, photographie de Gustave Le Gray, 1857, Tirage sur papier albuminé d’après deux négatifs sur verre au collodion, 357 x 419 mm, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Estampes et de la photographie.

    The technique used in this photography is questioned by O.G. Rejlanders contemporaries. The reaction of some of them proves that they didn’t understood that in order to realise this masterpiece, the photograph didn’t gathered and displayed all the characters (among which we can find naked women) at the same time. To create The two ways of life, O.G. Rejlander used 30 photographies and spent more than 6 weeks taking and assembling every cliché shaping this composition.

    The photograph uses to its extreme the technique of assembling slides. But already before him, other artists like Gustave Le Gray, used similar, but less ambitious, compositions.

    In The great wave, Sète, Le Gray uses this process in order to have an homogeneous exposition in the photography. He takes two pictures, one with a posing time sufficiently short to reproduce the clearest details of the sky and the other with a longest one to capture the details of the darker see and rocks. Le Gray will take an impotant amount of photographies using this technique.

    The choice of O.G. Rejlander of collage is justified by several reasons. This technique solves the problem of sharpness in different plans and allows a rich and complex composition as presented in The two ways of life.

    In order to consider the photographic medium as an artistic one O.G. Rejlander doesn’t chose his subject randomly. The two ways of life, original for the technic used, contains the theme of the Athens school, of Raphaël. We find the two main characters holding hands and a cohort of busy or idle individuals.

    The choice can be explained in two ways. The intention of O.G. Rejlander is to represent both decay and the industry of his city. This two behaviours are in contradiction as the groups of individuals represented. The choice can also be explained by the desire of presenting the photographic medium as an artistic one. Showing that it is possible to create as complex and evocative work as the italian painters of the Renaissance, O.G. Rejlander manages to convince about the artistic potential of photography.

    One of the photographies used for the realisation of “The two ways of life

    The Two Ways of Life also questions the use of nudity in photography. If nudity in paintings is admitted, nudity in photography causes scandal. Realism and detail of photography reflects exactly the reality of the bodies. This realism and detail shocked a segment of the victorian society in that time.

    The controversy is soothed when Queen Victoria buys for Prince Albert a copy of The two ways of life. But it appears again when Scottish Society refuses to exhibit the work in an exposition in Edinburgh.

    Thomas Sutton, photographic editor of The News and responsible of the exposition, justifies this reject by the necessity to preserve the dignity of the women portrayed. In fact, O.G. Rejlander affirms that the models are actresses and actors, when other argue that they are prostitutes. Nevertheless, the fact that the artist lied or not about this isn’t taken into account in Thomas Sutton argumentation. It is the nudity and the carnal representation that justifies the rejection of this work.

    Furthermore, the argument about the social background of the models, is not raised when it comes to painting. As a matter of fact, it happens that painters ask photographers for nude photographies as models for their paintings. Here are two examples :

    Nu féminin assis sur un divan, la tête soutenue par un bras par Eugène Durieu,  papier salé verni d’après négatif papier, 14 x 9,5 cm, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Estampes et de la Photographie.

    Odalisque,1857, par Eugène Delacroix, huile sur panneau de bois, Collection privée.  

    O.G. Rejlander en la frontera de la fotografia social

    A night on the streets of London’ (Poor Joe),v. 1860, O.G. Rejlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatifverre au collodion humide, 20X15cm, Rochester, Geroge Estman House. 

      1. La pobreza como sujeto artístico

      Los progresos técnicos de la revolución industrial permitieron la gran difusión de obras literarias como las de Victor Hugo y Charles Dickens. Ambos influenciaron los artistas de su época. No es sorprendente ver a fotógrafos de la segunda mitad del siglo 19 apuntando sus objetivos hacia la miseria de las calles descritas por estos dos monumentos de la literatura.

      Los hombres de letras como los que se esconden detrás del velo de la cámara oscura viven en ciudades empobrecidas por el éxodo rural. No es sorprendente que O.G. Rejlander elija de capturar por medio de la fotografía la pobreza que marca su cotidianidad.

      Cansado por la cantidad de trabajo que requiere el procedimiento de collage en su trabajo artístico, lo abandona para seguir su actividad de retratista, realizando, en un estilo de documental, retratos de niños de la calle. La elección del sujeto no tiene nada de sorprendente. Según los escritos del reformista social Heny Mayhew, autor de Trabajadores y pobres en Londres (1851), habrían en las calles de Londres entre 10 000 y 20 000 niños de menos de 15 años viviendo en la miseria.

      A night in the streets of London,tambien conocida bajo el nombre de Poor Joe, hace parte de la serie de retratos de los niños de la calle realizados por O.G. Rejlander. El niño que aparece en la fotografía, esta postrado sobre unos escalones. Este claroscuro sorprende por la riqueza de los detalles que lo constituye. El drapeado de su ropa, la postura del niño y la riqueza de las tonalidades de gris hacen de este retrato una real pintura. Todos los elementos de esta composición son elegidos con cuidado y la toma es controlada a la perfección. Nada es dejado al azar lo que contrasta con lo que podemos imaginar es realidad de la vida del niño fotografiado.

      Encontramos en Poor Joe el resultado que hace que consideremos todavía hoy a O.G. Rejlander como el padre de la fotografía artística.

      Urchins playing a Game. O.G. Rejlander, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide. 

      Otro ejemplo del trabajo de O.G. Rejlander sobre la pobreza, son los niños jugando con huesitos que parecen estar en movimiento. Encontramos aquí la ilusión creada por las puestas en escena de Charles Nègre con sus fotografías de calle, pero con una visión mas sentimental de los niños.

        2. La pobreza puesta en escena

        Sabemos según la nota de la historiadora de arte Stephanie Spencer que el taller de O.G. Rejlander, en Malden Road, al norte de Londres quedaba cerca de Chalk Farm Ragged School for Boys. Esta institución se encargaba de acoger, dar de comer y darles una educación a los niños viviendo en las calles. Esto hace decir a la historiadora: “los niños que aparecen en las fotografías de Rejlander están limpios y bien alimentados; no son realmente niños de la calle pero mas bien pequeños bajo el cuidado de una institución caritativa”.

        Sabemos también que el fotógrafo les proporciona ropa a los niños que fotografía. Es conocido por pedirle a los pasantes que le den sus ropas para sus realizaciones. Su representación de la pobreza puede ser comparada a la que describe Charles Dickens en Bleak House. O.G. Rejlander da una imagen conmovedora de los niños pobres y no le da miedo agregar un poco de humor a su realización. Así su estilo se acerque al de un documental, la puesta en escena y los niños elegidos para ser fotografiados hacen que el trabajo de O.G. Rejlander sea una realización artística.

        3. Los niños como sujetos

        Alice Liddell disfrazada de mendiga, Charles Dodgson, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.

        El echo de elegir a niños para ser modelos, en particular si no tienen padres para protegerlos, plantea cuestiones de ética. El tema de derechos de imagen no es tratado todavía en la Inglaterra Victoriana. Sin embargo, al mirar estas fotografías hoy en día podemos sentirnos incomodos.

        La intención de O.G. Rejlander es oficialmente de documentar. Pero las puestas en escena que elige hacen que la fotografía sea mucho mas que eso. Manipula nuestra mirada y hace crecer en nosotros un sentimiento de melancolía.

        La elección de O.G. Rejlander de fotografiar a niños tiene que ser puesta en su contexto. El fotógrafo es amigo de Irène Julia Margaret Cameron y Charles Dodgson, más conocido como Lewis Carroll. Ambos practican la fotografía de niños. Los usan como modelos para poder describir el mundo de la despreocupación. Estos dos fotógrafos toman fotos de niños a veces muy ligeramente vestidos o en posiciones chocantes para la época lo cual todavía molesta al observador atento.

        Un estudio de Alice Liddel disfrazada de mendiga, puede ayudarnos a comprender las razones de la polémica al rededor de Lewis Carroll. En esta imagen, el fotógrafo nos muestra a Alice Liddle, la niña para quien escribió Alicia en el Pais de las Maravillas. La joven esta a mitad desnuda. Podemos ver sus piernas hasta la rodilla y hasta uno de sus pezones. Mira el objetivo fijamente y su mirada fría nos pone incomodos. Tiene una mano posesionada para pedir limosna muy cerca de su cuerpo y su puño sobre su cadera recuerda según algunos historiadores de arte la postura de jóvenes prostitutas londinenses. La novela de Lewis Carroll, puesta en relieve por estas fotografías atiza la polémica según la cual era pederasta. Algunos rechazan esta teoría comparando sus fotografías con las de Julia Margaret Cameron. Ella pone en escena a sus propias hijas, a veces en ropa interior, una representación muy osada para la época victoriana. Así, las fotografías tomadas por el autor de Alicia en el Pais de las Maravillas, deberían ser puestas en su contexto. Notemos sin embargo que después de esta serie de fotografías, las relaciones entre Charles Dodgson y la pequeña Alice cesaron brutalmente sin ninguna razón aparente.

        4. La pobreza y el sentimentalismo de O.G Rejlander 

        Hard Times, O.G. Rejlander, v. 1860, épreuve albuminée d’après un négatif verre au collodion humide.

        Como ya lo hemos visto, O.G. Rejlander trata la pobreza como un tema artístico y con un cierto sentimentalismo. Esto se ve en la totalidad de sus tomas pero sobre todo en Hard Times. Ilustra aquí las condiciones de vida de un trabajador pobre. Vemos un padre de familia, la herramienta a la mano y su mirada perdida en sus mas oscuros pensamientos. Detrás de el imaginamos a su esposa e hijo durmiendo, teniendo que compartir una sola cama. La angustia del trabajador lo mantiene despierto. Así el hombre sea un obrero, es representado con ropa limpia pero simple. O.G. Rejlander le da así una representación estética pero artificial de la pobreza.

        Esta representación se opone a la de sus contemporáneos. Podemos citar por ejemplo, el trabajo de Thomas John Barnes para el Dr. Barnardo. La colaboración entre estos dos hombres crea lo que podemos considerar como la primera campaña de comunicación con el objetivo de colectar plata por medio de la fotografía. Esta técnica, de poner en escena a niños de la institución para la cual trabajan tendrá por consecuencia una gran cantidad de criticas. Thomas John Barnes realiza montajes fotográficos. En el que les presentamos podemos observar un niño de la calle puesto en escena de manera compasiva y en la segunda un niño trabajando con ropa nueva.

        Este trabajo casi publicitario se distingue del trabajo estético realizado por O.G. Rejlander. De la misma época, podemos también citar el trabajo de Alice Austen quien decide fotografiar a sus sujetos dejandolos conservar en su representación toda la dignidad que debemos reconocer en cada ser humano.

        Alice Austen.