Product of an acetylation. Hard to believe, but only less than 1% of byproduct causes the black coloration on the white crystals. Just a quick wash with methanol and white crystals will be obtained.

What is acetylation? Making an acetyl ester of an alcohol, in this case with acetic anhydride.

How does this looks? Here is an example with acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): 


Synthesizing, acetylating and separating using column chromatography was actually very interesting. Remaking the point in history when the first “sandwich” compound was discovered in 1951, a very cool structure to a molecule that has proven itself to be very useful through the ages.

Jumping Enzyme Discovered in Nucleus Influences Epigenetic Regulation

A study led by a team of researchers at the Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Alberta sheds light on a new, interesting way metabolism is connected to DNA regulation. The discovery may add an important piece to the puzzle in scientists’ quest to understand diseases and their epigenetic basis. One such disease commonly focused on is cancer.

Inside the cell’s nucleus, DNA tightly winds itself around histones, a specialized type of protein responsible for the formation of chromatin. Typically, histones package the DNA so tightly that gene expression and DNA replication – processes necessary for division and cell growth – cannot occur. With histone modification, however, the addition of an acetyl-group can loosen the DNA, allowing for these necessary functions to occur. Some different histone modifications include acetylationphosphorylationmethylation, ADP ribosylation, and ubiquitination.

When acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) sacrifices an acetyl-group, the DNA relaxes and the expression of genes and DNA replication ensues. The epigenetic regulation of DNA is critical to normal functions and development as well as diseases such as cancer or heart failure. How exactly the nucleus produces acetyl-CoA for histone acetylation has remained elusive until now.

Read more…Here

Regioselective acetylation of carbohydrates and diols catalyzed by tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide in water

Regioselective acetylation of carbohydrates and diols catalyzed by tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide in water

Regioselective acetylation of carbohydrates and diols catalyzed by tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide in water

Green Chem., 2014, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C4GC00770K, Communication Yuchao Lu,a   Peng Wei,a   Yuxin Pei,*a   Hengfu Xu,a  Xiaoting Xina and   Zhichao Pei*ab     *Corresponding authors aState Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and College of Science, Northwest A&F…

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Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2

Larry H Bernstein, MD, FCAP, Writer and Curator

Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN, Curator silencing and longevity protein Sir2 

Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase.

Imai S1, Armstrong CM, Kaeberlein M, Guarente L.
Nature.  Feb 17, 2000; 403(6771): 795-800.  PMID:…

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100 days keto challenge: days 51-61

I should’ve weighted in and update on 60 but I reckoned with 61st day being also the 1st of September this might help some precision in book keeping.

So these last 10 days I have been behaving but because I was constantly out with people I almost couldnt even track so I know I as eating keto-legal stuff, just didn’t know how much of it in terms of macros nor calories. Plus some late night snacks in the form of pork rinds might have slowed me down a bit again so we’re still pretty much there. 

Day 61: 85.8Kg

I am not terribly upset, actually considering a couple of protein binges I am impressed my body could hold balance so well. I am trying to get into a quick fat fast although I know I’ll still be around people for the weeks to come so direct control over food intake might prove more challenging than usual.

I am stating the regular 30 days squat, abs and arms challenge today (though I can tell I am so not in the mood), let’s see how things will change come October.

Ketosticks don’t like me much there days but I reckon I am not really out of keto given the smell still. I noticed that my energy levels and results get better when I have had Alpha Lipoic Acid in the evening and Acetyl L-Carinitine in the morning with the more water, the better.

Back to my beloved avocados finally. We had a fall out because I suspect I ate too many once I discovered them a few months ago that my body experimented a bit of rejection mode, but it’s all in the past now.

Oh Avocado, how have I missed you, come here my sweet!

Emergency doctors may soon see larger numbers of patients who appear to have overdosed on heroin, but have actually taken a relatively new and deadly designer drug called acetyl fentanyl, a researcher says

Be observant out there you guys, fentanyl seems to be catching on. This story was brought up to me by itsjasonstark and it can very well be the beginning of a new go to drug in the streets. Fentanyl and Acetyl fentanyl will hit like an opiate but depending on the dosage and the mixture used can be extreme and sudden. I have personally already dealt with a few overdoses involving fentanyl and in one extreme case a teen was ingesting fentanyl patches. As you can imagine the overdose will look like any opiate overdose but narcan could be rendered ineffective depending on the dosage taken. Fentanyl patches will continue to release the drug for long periods of time. In some cases higher doses of narcan can be effective but may only be short acting. In the case of the teen ingesting fentanyl patches he had to be intubated and treatment didn’t bring him back until 24 hours later. 

A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer

Author: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP

e Book Series Volume 4.  Summary

A Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer Synthesis of the Beauty and Complexity of How We View Cancer

This document has covered a broad spectrum of the research, translational biology, diagnostics (both laboratory and imaging methodologies), and…

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Glucose is essential to burn fat. Fat and Glucose both enter into the Krebs Cycle at the same point as acetyl CoA. However, Glucose also contributes to other parts of the cycle. Without Glucose, that big wheel won’t keep turning.
Without Glucose, fat continues to accumulate in the form of Acetyl CoA but can’t get through the Krebs Cycle. The body responds by letting the liver convert the Acetyl CoA to an acid called a ketone. Ketones slow the metabolic rate , reduce appetite and build up levels of acid in the blood (and your body does not like acid). Left unchecked ketosis can lead a person with diabetes into a coma.
In healthy people , restricting carbs (as you do in a low/no carb diet) also brings on ketosis. However, instead of just messing with their fat metabolism, they also start losing muscle mass. Here’s why: Protein can be used for ATP production within the Krebs Cycle, and the liver can turn protein into glucose! If you deprive your body of glucose, it responds by depriving you of your muscle mass, a situation that slows metabolic rate even more and makes it hard to lose body fat. SO EAT YOUR CARBS!
—  Kinesiology For Dummies- Steve Glass, Brian Hatzel & Rick Albrecht 

(Sung to the tune of “Clementine”)

In starvation, diabetes, sugar levels under strain
You need fuel to keep going saving glucose for your brain
Ketone bodies, Ketone bodies, both acetoacetate
And its partner on reduction, 3-hydroxybutyrate.

Glucagon’s up, with low glucose, insulin is down in phase
Fatty acids mobilised by hormone-sensitive lipase
Ketone bodies, Ketone bodies, all start thus from white fat cell
Where through lack of glycerol-P, TG making’s down as well.

Fatty acyl, CoA level, makes kinase phosphorylate
Acetyl-CoA carboxy-lase to its inactive state
Ketone bodies, Ketone bodies, because glucagon they say
Also blocks carboxylation, lowers Malonyl-CoA.

Malonyl-CoAs a blocker of the key CPT-1
Blocking’s off so now the shuttle into mito’s is begun
Now we’ve ß oxidation, now we’ve acetyl-CoA
But what’s to stop it’s oxidation via good old TCA?

In starvation, glucose making, stimulating PEP CK
Uses oxaloacetic, also lost another way
Ketone bodies, what is odd is that the oxidation state
Also favours the reduction of OA to make malate.

OA’s low now, citrate synthase, thus loses activity
So the flux into the cycle cuts off (temporarily)
Ketone bodies, Ketone bodies situation thus is this
Acetyl-CoA’s now pouring into Ketogenesis.

It’s a tricky little pathway, it’s got HMG-CoA
In effect it’s condensation in a head-to-tailish way
Ketone bodies, Ketone bodies, note the ratio of the pair
Is controlled by NAD to NADH everywhere.

Don’t despise them, they’re good fuels for your muscles, brain and heart
When you’re bodies overloaded though, that’s when your troubles start
Ketone bodies, ketone bodies, make acetone, lose CO2
You can breath those out, but watch out - acidosis does for you!


© “The Biochemists’ Songbook, 2nd ed.” Harold Baum. London: Taylor and Francis Publishers,

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​swapped out my Now 800mg CLA for Sports Research 1,250mg CLA higher purity and more CLA, and it’s GMO free.
All my vitamins are GMO free and my Rabbi sells Solgar vitamins which are the best and Kosher as well, the rest my Rabbi approved of as there were no Kosher alternatives and they are made from plants. With all my vitamins and my workouts I went from 200 lbs to 167lbs now in almost 3 months. Stick with Solgar as much as possible they have the best absorption rate into the body and have been around for decades after trial and error I have found below to be the best
Left to Right:
1) 200mg Caffeine Pills to boost metabolism in the morning
2) Solgar VM-75 Multivitamin (seriously the best multivitamin you can buy, I mean look at the nutrition facts! Eat your heart out Centrum)
3) Solgar North Atlantic Kelp
4) Solgar Acetyl L-Carnitine (helps with muscles and brain)
5) Solgar L-Arginine/L-Ornithine 500mg/250mg (really helps transfer of energy to muscles, helps the body create more and synthesize more Creatine for muscles)
6) GNC Amplified Creatine 189 (Helps bulk muscles and get more energy)
7) Sports Research CLA 1250 helps boost metabolism

Now don’t expect instant results sometimes it can take as much as 3-4 weeks to feel the effects of these supplements. But once you do it’s like a whole new you as always take these with food

Three Habits to Stay Lean for Life

I see many of my colleagues yo-yo with their body composition. They get themselves to 6%, bounce back to 20%, get enraged, go back down, rebound back up

Here is the reality: you need to stay lean for 18 months, before you body believes it is true. The premise being that you need to go through three sets of new cells to make it permanent.

True? False?

I am not sure of the science behind it; however I have seen so many people get lean and get fat back again, to say that the ones who stay lean practice the three following habits:

Habit 1: Taper down food intake as the day goes by

As a kid, my father kept repeating, breakfast of a king, lunch of a prince, dinner of a beggar.

A well-structured breakfast with a rich composition of foods high in dopamine and acetyl-choline building nutrients respectively, such as tyrosine and choline, will set up your neural drive for success and work capacity.

A well designed breakfast also has been show to affect the quality of your food selection for the whole day. In other words, a great breakfast helps you make better choices.

What do I eat for breakfast? Yesterday, I had goat stew and macadamia nuts. Today, salmon cooked in butter, cashews, avocados. Tomorrow, beef carpaccio, almonds, açai berries. With breakfast, I always have coffee: black like my soul. Sometimes, in cold weather, I will add coconut oil or grass fed butter.

If eating meat in the morning is completely new to you, then please go read my article on the Meat and Nuts Breakfast for more informations

Tip 2: Increase your carbs as the day goes by.

One of the biggest myths in nutrition is that you are supposedly carb sensitive in the morning. Complete bullshit. Carbs should be increased as the day goes by so you can make the correct neurotransmitters for shutting off the nervous system: GABA and serotonin. This way you can sleep properly, which in return makes you leaner.

Tip 3: Don’t eat within 2 hours of going to bed.

Don’t freak out about going catabolic. It won’t happen. Want to get lean faster? Stop eating 4 hours before going to bed 3 non-consecutive nights a week. Dr. Mark Houston pointed out to me some German studies that showed that this unique step has the greatest potential for restoring hormonal balance. Interestingly enough, 3 nights a week worked as well as 7 nights a week.

Get lean, then apply those three habits on a daily basis, and you will stay lean for life.


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