Ming-Dynasty

A PEEP INTO THE CHINA’S RETIREMENT SYSTEMS

Sometimes people can’t help but imagine what retirement would be like: getting up as late as you want; able to travel anywhere; receiving pension payments… However, the bad news is that this paradise will will have to start later in life. According to China Daily, Yin Weimin, Minister of Human Resources and Social Security, said recently that the government would gradually increase the official retirement age. The current checkpoint has been in effect since the 1950s and is currently 60 for male workers and 50 for female.

Yin did not say when exactly retirement ages would be increased, the discussion on whether retirement should be postponed has been heated. Not many people know that the current retirement ages are the same as those during the Ming and Qing dynasties…

Continue reading here!

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Politics of Men’s Hair in Chinese History (a condensed timeline)

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References:

Manchus And Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928 (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China) By Edward J. M. Rhoads

Hair: Its Power and Meaning in Asian Cultures edited by Alf Hiltebeitel, Barbara D. Miller

The End of the Queue: Hair as Symbol in Chinese History by Michael R. Godley

China Made: Consumer Culture and the Creation of the Nation By Karl Gerth

Sources of Chinese Tradition: Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600  By William Theodore De Bary, Irene Bloom, Joseph Adler

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Social control (according to Merriam-Webster):

the rules and standards of society that circumscribe individual action through the inculcation of conventional sanctions and the imposition of formalized mechanisms

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Ming Dynasty and dynasties prior (1644 and before)

“In Chinese consciousness of hair, moral discipline is more perceivable than sexual restraint. Cutting hair is more critical than the change of hair style. In the periods under consideration, hair cutting meant social control, not only supported by the conventionalized and morally approved fashions, but also regulated and supervised by the political authorities.” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, pg. 138)

“Long before the Manchu conquest, Han males had become accustomed to the practice of binding up their long hair on the top of their heads. This custom is inferred by such idioms as ‘to bind hair when starting school’ (sufa shoushu), or ‘to bind hair while being a soldier’ (Jiefa congrong). When a student was twenty years old, he ought to have a ‘caping ceremony’ (guanli) in which he changed his child’s headdress to an adult’s, demonstrating his entrance into the mature world. This tradition can be traced back to the Zhou dynasty (1100-256 B.C.) (SSJZS 1:945).” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 124)

“Under the Ming regime, the ceremony was adopted by more social categories than the scholar-offical class (Zhang 3:1377-87). Ming men, once capped, let their hair grow long, and wore it in elaborate fashion under horsehair caps (Ricci 1953:78).” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 124)

“One of the greatest obstacles confronting early Chinese Buddhism was the aversion of Chinese society to the shaving of the head, which was required of all members of the Buddhist clergy. The Confucians held that the body is a gift of one’s parents and that to harm it is to be disrespectful toward them.

The questioner said, ‘The Classic of Filiality says, ‘Our body, limbs, hair, and skin are all received from our fathers and mothers. We dare not injure them.’ When Zengzi was about to die, he bared his hands and feet. But now the monks shave their heads. How this violates the sayings of the sages and is out of keeping with the way of the filial!’” (Adler, pg 423)

“Although some modern writers have claimed that Chinese resisted hair-cutting because of their reluctance to part with a gift handed down from their ancestors, the heads of boys were, in fact, shaved even during the Ming Confucian revival, a practice which continued throughout the Qing.[32] It could, therefore, be that head-shaving was perceived by adults as an insult.” (Godley)

“The cutting off of hair in fact accompanied castration in ancient China, and hair was cropped as a form of punishment right up to the eve of the Mongol invasion. From cases reaching the Board of Punishments in the early Qing, we do know that members of certain heterodoxical sects attached magical potency to their long hair.[33] As Philip Kuhn concluded in his study of the role of sorcery and ‘soul-stealing’ in the 'queue-clipping’ outbreak of 1768, a century after the conquest, the tonsure was still far more important, symbolically, than the queue.” (Godley)

“This case shows how hair became a means of social control and a focus of cultural and political conflict. In traditional China men’s long and bound-up hair epitomized the Confucian norm of filial piety, Han culturalism, and magical power.” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 138)

Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)

“During the Qing dynasty, the shaved forehead and queue symbolized Manchu autocratic authority and its cultural dominance, though Han Chinese still held a moral and respectful attitude toward their hair.” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, pg. 138)

“The queue was the male hairstyle of the original Manchus, a variant of the way men of the northern tribes, including the Jurchen, had traditionally worn their hair; it involved shaving the front and sides of the head, letting the rest of the hair grow long, and braiding it into a plait.” (Rhoads, pg. 60)

“The regent Dorgon, uncle of the young emperor Fulin […] upon occupying Nanjing […] issued a decree formally requiring all Chinese to shave their foreheads and plait their hair in a queue like the Manchus. Chinese men had to conform to the new rulers’ hair style. Disobedience would be ‘equivalent to a rebel’s defying the Mandate (of Heaven)’ (ni-ming) (SZSL 17:7b-8).” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 125)

“…a Han male’s queue reflected the Manchus drive to submit Hans to the minority’s political and cultural hegemonies and its symbolic standardization of the people’s political ideology.” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, pg. 124)

“Having accepted the Confucian notion that the ruler was like a father and the subjects like his sons, Dorgon emphasized the physical resemblance between the Manchus and the conquered Chinese. The affirmed purpose was to make Manchus and Hans a unified body. Being afraid of inspiring any anti-Manchu imaginations and actions, the Qing rulers enforced the hair cutting policy and persecuted hair growers without mercy.”  (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 125)

“A slogan of the tonsure operators was ‘Keep your head, lose your hair; keep your hair, lose your head’ (Wakeman 1975a:58), which epitomized the ruthlessness of the Manchu’s hair cutting.) (Hiltebeitel and Miller, 125)

“The only ones exempt [from the Queue Order of 1645] were men in mourning, young boys, Buddhist monks (who shaved off all their hair), and Taoist priests (who let their hair grow). All other Han males in Qing China were coerced into abiding by the requirement.” (Rhoads, pg. 60)

After Revolution of 1911-1912

“After the fall of the Qing court, short hair replaced the queue style, embodying nationalism and Westernization.” (Hiltebeitel and Miller, pg. 138)

“The men’s hairstyle, which the Qing originally required as a badge of subservience to Manchu rule, was, not surprisingly, the revolutionaries’ first target. Despite several years of open agitation by political and social reformers for its removal, the queue requirement had remained in effect until two months into the revolution. Even then the Qing had only permitted, but did not compel, its male subjects to cut their queue and wear their hair short in the Western (and Japanese) style of the day.” (Rhoads, pg. 252)

“The Republicans were not satisfied with this eleventh-hour, half-hearted measure; they insisted on universal, mandatory queue-cutting. Thus, in the four months between the Wuchang uprising and the Qing abdication, wherever the revolutionaries took power, one of the first decrees they issued was for the removal of the queue as a sign of loyalty to their regime.” (Rhoads, pg. 252)

“To the Republicans’ distress, their policy of universal mandatory queue-cutting did not always meet with general approval, not necessarily because the people were opposed to the revolution but because after more than two centuries, they regarded the Manchufied hairstyle as an integral part of their cultural tradition. As a result, the queue-cutting orders were often ignored; their unrealistically short deadlines, unmet.” (Rhoads, pg. 252)

“For most Chinese, the forcible removal of the queue was, as one observer put it, a ‘humiliating disfigurement.’ In their eyes, the queue was less a ‘badge of conquest’ and more a badge of nationality and identity (Crow 1944: 22). These Chinese had forgotten the original terms under which the hairstyle had been imposed and had no idea that it could signify allegiance to the Qing.” (Gerth, pg. 91)

“In Changsha, the provincial capital of Hunan, as in many Chinese cities and towns, retention of the queue was viewed as an explicit sign of traitorous allegiance to the Manchus”. (Gerth, pg. 92)

“Although the queue was on the way out, there was, in fact, some opposition to 'foreign hair.’ One Hunan official, who listed all the advantages of a queueless head, nevertheless resisted Japanese and Western styles. Some tried to pile their hair on top, while others adopted a half-cut which resembled a mop. A few had bets each way and, having experienced the moment of liberation, tied their braids back on.” (Godley)

“When the directives for voluntary compliance failed of their purpose, the revolutionary governments generally resorted to coercion. In Zhejiang, local officials in Jiaxing and  Hangzhou sent out soldiers armed with large shears to cut any remaining braids on sight; they posted such ‘queue-cutting brigades’ at the city gates to catch unwary villagers entering from the countryside.” (Rhoads, pg. 252)

“Queue-removal was something of an official crusade in the early years of the Republic. It was deemed a prerequisite for voting in one province, while as late as 1914 Beijing authorities renewed their pressure on the recalcitrant inhabitants of that city. Now it was the police that cut the queues off anyone arrested.” (Godley)

“By the late 1930s… [though the queue]… could be glimpsed occasionally in such remote places as a market town in Anhui, it had become a noteworthy rarity. Otherwise, the hairstyle of Chinese men had been completely ‘de-Manchufied.’” (Rhoads, pg. 253)

Ewer in the Shape of a Phoenix, about 1570–80, China, Ming dynasty (1368–1644), molded porcelain with silver-gilt mounts (Nuremberg, Germany, about 1600, with later additions)

The Taft Museum of Art

Ancient Buddha statues found in north China

Over 1,000 ancient Buddha statues have been found in north China’s Shanxi Province, a local cultural relics protection department said on Friday.

The Buddha statues were found in three stone caves in a cliff in Yangqu County and could date back to the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), according to local archaeologists.

The stone statues carved into the cave walls are 12 to 25 centimeters long, said Yang Jifu, director of the county’s cultural heritage tourism bureau.

Yang said two of the caves had been restored in the Ming Dynasty, according to the record on two steles in the caves. Read more.

Ming Dynasty Emperor Zhengde was infamous for his sexual insatiability.  He decreed that his inner palace as well as his occasional places of residence by permanently staffed with “a substantial number of serving-women.” Many of these women were taken unwillingly from the general population via draft campaigns. Worse, Zhengde did not or could not look after them. Many died from starvation or disease due to their poor conditions. Ironically, his death led to a succession crisis because Zhengde, despite all those women, left behind no legitimate successor.

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François-Nicolas Martinet: Chinese gold fish, before 1780.

From “Histoire naturelle des dorades de la Chine”, published in Paris in 1780.

During the Tang Dynasty (618–907), it was popular to raise carp in ornamental ponds and water-gardens. A natural genetic mutation produced gold (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver coloration. People began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver variety, keeping them in ponds or other bodies of water. On special occasions at which guests were expected they would be moved to a much smaller container for display.

By the Song Dynasty (960–1279), the domestication of goldfish was firmly established. In 1162, the empress ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety. By this time, people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold (yellow) variety, yellow being the imperial color. This is probably the reason why there are more orange goldfish than yellow goldfish, even though the latter are genetically easier to breed.

During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), goldfish also began to be raised indoors, which led to the selection for mutations that would not be able to survive in ponds. The occurrence of other colors (apart from red and gold) was first recorded in 1276. 

In 1611, goldfish were introduced to Portugal and from there to other parts of Europe. During the 1620s, goldfish were highly regarded in southern Europe because of their metallic scales, and symbolized good luck and fortune. It became tradition for married men to give their wives a goldfish on their one-year anniversary, as a symbol for the prosperous years to come. This tradition quickly died, as goldfish became more available, losing their status.

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January 23rd 1556: Shaanxi earthquake

On this day in 1556 the deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hit Shaanxi province, China. The earthquake killed around 830,000 people, though due to the limited sources from the time this is only an estimate. It struck in the morning of January 23rd, but aftershocks continued for half a year after. The earthquake is believed to have measured about 8.0 on the Richter scale, which is not the strongest on record. However as it triggered landslides and struck in a densely populated area where people lived in artificial Loess caves, the death toll was the highest in history from an earthquake. More than 97 counties in the provinces surrounding Shaanxi were affected, with the city of Huaxian - at the epicentre of the quake - being completely destroyed. An 840km wide area was completely destroyed by the disaster, leveling buildings and killing thousands. The disaster occurred during the Ming Dynasty under the rule of the Jiajing Emperor and thus is sometimes referred to in Chinese sources as the Jiajing Great Earthquake. The Shaanxi earthquake was the deadliest earthquake and third deadliest natural disaster in history.

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Hair ornaments such as hair pins, hair clasps and crowns were everyday embellishments of women in old China. During the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing Dynasties (1644-1911), women’s hair ornaments expressed traditional Chinese thought and culture in exquisite, sophisticated techniques.