8bp

this album means a lot to me because it is the first of it’s genre that i ever heard, which introduced me to sabrepulse and xinon… jeeze, it just exploded from there, i was obsessed and i needed to find more… i went on to discover most of the artists i listen to today and i am so happy that i did…

Semester 3 Molecular and Cellular Biology

Molecular Biology Techniques

  • Restriction Enzymes - Recognise specific sites on DNA, usually 4-8bp long, palindromic Restriction sites. Breaks Phosphodiester bonds on DNA to produce either blunt ends or overhanging ends, which can anneal spontaneously and Phosphodiester bonds reformed by DNA Ligase
  • Restriction map - Different Restriction enzymes cut at different points to form fragments of different length. Map of restriction sites can help describe Plasmids 
  • Plasmids - Short circular DNA separate from Bacterial chromosome - Confers properties to host bacterium e.g. Antibiotic resistance. Used to confirm successful recombination, etc. 
  • Gel Electrophoresis - Negatively charged nucleic acids move from the cathode to anode, shorter fragments have lower MW and hence diffuse further relative to longer fragment

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • Requires specifically designed Primers, Deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs), Buffer solution, Taq polymerase and DNA Template.
  • Copies 2^n where n=cycle
  • Denaturing, Annealing of Primers, Extension of DNA 

Chromosomal and Genomic Analysis

  • Pre, Post-natal and Adult testing - Uses Amniotic fluid, Foetal blood, Choroid Villus, Venous blood, Tissue biopsy etc
  • Indicated in multiple miscarriages, Known FHx of chromosomal disorders, indeterminate gender etc. 

Chromosomal variations

  • Numerical - e.g. Trisomy, Monosomy 
  • Structural - e.g. Translocations, Copy Number Variations 

Techniques

  1. Giemsa Staining - AT rich regions appear dark while Gene rich CG regions appear light; Karyotype formed based on length, banding pattern, position of centromere etc. 
  2. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridisation (FISH) - Specifically designed fluorescent probe attached to specific sites on Metaphase chromosome, identify known syndromes e.g. 22q11
  3. Qualitative Fluorescence PCR - Specifically designed fluorescent probes for Small Tandem Repeats (STR = Microsatellites). Disomy appears as two separate equal peaks or single peak (disinformative, might disguise Trisomy or Monosomy)
  4. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation - Test and Control DNA fragments hybridised with different colours of fluorescent probe, mixed together in equal quantities, then mixed DNA solution put onto array and fluorescence analysed. Gain, Loss or equal signal can provide information on Copy Number Variations
  5. Sanger Sequencing - Similar to PCR, except ddNTP Fluorochrome are added, which terminate the sequence early. This provides different lengths of PCR products with a fluorescent probe which indicates the identity of the last base pair replicated. This allows for computational analysis based on Capillary Gel Electrophoresis to sequence an entire genome. 

Patterns of Inheritance

  • Autosomal Dominant and Recessive
  • X Linked Dominant and Recessive
  • Mitochondrial Homo and Heteroplasmy 
  • Triplet Repeat disorders 

Chromosomal Disorders

Autosomal Aneuploidy 

  • Trisomy 21 = Down syndrome - most common cause of mental retardation
  • Trisomy 18 = Edwards syndrome - Microcephaly, micrognathia, cleft palate 
  • Trisomy 13 = Patau syndrome - High mortality at birth, since Ch 13 is an acrosome Robertsonian translocation possible 

X Linked Aneuploidy 

  • 47XXY = Klinefelter - Eunuchoid body habitus, impotency 
  • 45X = Turner - Webbed skin, oedema, normal intellectually

Structural Abnormalities - Indels, Translocation

  • Balanced vs Unbalanced
  • Robertsonian vs Reciprocal Translocation

Indels - e.g. 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge)

+++ Best Forex Signal : All hail Yellen as European stocks close high in the green
Best Forex Signal -
  • FTSE +1.9%
  • Cac +3.2%
  • Dax +2.6%
  • Ibex +3.1%
  • FTSE Mib +2.7%
  • Athens +1.5%

European bonds

  • Italy 1.96% flat
  • Spain 1.74% -3bp
  • Portugal 2.78% -8bp
  • Germany 0.612% +2bp
  • Greece 8.60% -15bp

Decent gains all round and markets seem to have the first Greek vote in their stride

Greek 10yr yields 18 12 2014

 



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