Cultural Dimensions

Hey all! I hope you had a great week! Today we are going to dive into the other three aspects of cultural differences, which are 1) achievement v nurturing, 2) uncertainty avoidance, 3) Future Orientation.

Achievement v Nurturing

This is the level of “masculinity” that a nation holds, relating to competitiveness and having power and control. These countries value assertiveness and acquiring money & goods compared to being more  “feminine” by nurturing, which is encouraging others’ development and growth. Essentially, nurturing is cultivating others instead of one. Nations like the US are very high achieving, and nations like India are more focused in nurturing values and supporting others. A masculine society would be more focused on self-development versus developing relationships with others. A masculine society values money and materials more than quality of life and others. From a political standpoint, a masculine society would value high economic growth and conflict solving via forceful advantage; whereas a feminine society would be more concerned with environmental protection and solving conflicts through negotiations (Hofstede). All of these attributes of achievement values place countries in their respective standings.

High Uncertainty Avoidance v Low Uncertainty Avoidance

Essentially, this refers to planning and thinking ahead … but being ok “going with the flow” or not knowing the detailed plan. Germans for example, are very detailed oriented and planners; of most the Germans I know (which is quite a few) they like to know the exact plan, time is of essences to them; comparative to some Australians who are very flexible when it comes to plans, and they run an a less tight schedule (Smitt). A low uncertainty avoidance citizen would posses these traits:

  • Few rules, and light structure
  • Risk taking is seen as normal (i.e.: travelling alone, starting your own business, investing in stocks)
  • The Three C’s (cool, calm, & collected): the Brits are famously known for having their “stiff upper lip” referring to them having a lack of emotion at times when a lot of others would…not necessarily meaning their unemotional but they just are better at hiding it.

While a high uncertainty individual would posses these traits:

  • Structure & rules to follow, formally & informally (ie: speed limit is formal, whereas the proper etiquette to eating cheese)
  • Security: lack of taking risks
  • Emotional & Passionate: they are likely to show their emotions for all seasons and events (i.e.: freaking out after a minor car crash, weddings, deaths)

Long-Term v Short-Term Orientation

This is the frugality of citizens and individuals, typically they like to plan for the future, they may be your friend who chooses to pack lunch instead of buy lunch as they’re saving for a new item that’s considered an investment. These types of individuals and cultures are known for thinking in advanced, maybe down a generation or two. Whereas, a short term oriented individual lives in the present, often making impulsive purchases, or not planning ahead for their next large purchase (i.e.: prom dress, car, vacation, college).

Check out some of these links to learn more about where your country stands and where other countries stand! By really understanding these differences you will become a more geocentric attitude, which is something we will discuss next week!

… Which leads you to becoming more culturally intelligent.

References

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Cultural Dimensions

I am taking a management course and we are currently discussing the differences of cultures and how to be more affluent to the diverse world we all live in, as you remember in my last blog, America is a very parochial country.  

 So, hopefully as you have experienced through your own life, there is a diverse range of cultures out in the world and it is important to understand peoples customs, traditions, and behaviors to ensure nobody is offended. Luckily, some bloke came up with five cultural dimensions that help differentiate different cultures. Geert Hofstede recognized that it is important for people to approach others with an understanding of some differences and how they came about. Knowing these differences should help you relate to others when you meet somebody from a different country or when you are travelling yourself.

  1. High Power Distance v Low Power Distance
  2. Individualism v Collectivism
  3. Achievement v Nurturing
  4. High Uncertainty Avoidance v Low Uncertainty Avoidance
  5. Long Term Orientation v Short Term Orientation

High Power Distance v Low Power Distance

This refers to calling your professor or teacher by Professor Smith, Mr. Smith, Doctor Smith instead of as Stephen. Alternatively, referring to your elders as “sir or madam/miss”, calling your boss Mr. Patel instead of Joseph; essentially, it is respecting those who have a higher ‘power’ than you in all aspects of life. You would call your neighbors and friends parents all by their last name instead of their first name.

In the US we have a very low power distance, where most people even with their doctorate or high levels of power don’t want to be called by their full title… though you will meet that person occasionally who says “I’m a doctor, I’ve earn the title” which is fine, but in America, sometimes that’s viewed as being pompous. In other countries, like India and most Asian countries the power distances is very high. You would never be caught calling somebody by their first name unless they were your peer or lower than you. Doing so would result in embarrassment and disrespect.

My professor who is from India, says that it is still uncomfortable for her to call her fellow faculty and professors by their first name, in India it would be expected to call them by their appropriate title. 

Individualism v Collectivism

This is where an individualist will look after their own interests and that of their family, but a collectivist will expect a group (or family) to look after and protect them. That is, acting as an individual versus acting as a member of a group. 

My friend is currently struggling with this problem, he was born in America, but his parents are from the Philippines, so they expected him to go to college and move home after graduation, even after he gets married he would live with his family and new wife until eventually he and his wife would move out. He does not want to do that because in America that is viewed as “weak” or abnormal to what you normally do after college; yet in the Philippines it is abnormal not to move home after you graduate and start getting settled. It is not unusual for three to four generations to live together, with aunts, uncles, and cousins as well; the Filipinos are a collectivist society where in America we are very individualistic. This is a struggle many children of immigrants struggle with; their family ties and traditions expect one thing, whilst their friends and peers are doing something else. They feel pulled to do both and are unsure of which one to do.

I will talk about the other three cultural dimensions next week, I feel as though this is a lot of information to absorb and hopefully you can start noticing different cultural dimensions amongst your friends and in school. Maybe talk to a friend of a different culture than you to see the differences and struggles you both have. I enjoy talking to the students and professors at my uni who are not from America.

I hope you are encouraged by reading my blogs on culture and please give me feedback on suggestions you would want to learn about.

 

Cheers,

 

Delaney

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